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Salicylic acid (SA) plays an important role in activating various plant defense responses, including expression of the pathogenesis-related (PR) genes and systemic acquired resistance. A critical positive regulator of the SA signaling pathway in Arabidopsis is encoded by the NPR1 gene. However, there is growing evidence that NPR1-independent pathways can(More)
The eukaryotic fatty acid desaturases are iron-containing enzymes that catalyze the NAD-(P)H- and O2-dependent introduction of double bonds into methylene-interrupted fatty acyl chains. Examination of deduced amino acid sequences for the membrane desaturases from mammals, fungi, insects, higher plants, and cyanobacteria has revealed three regions of(More)
In plants, changes in the levels of oleic acid (18:1), a major monounsaturated fatty acid (FA), results in the alteration of salicylic acid (SA)- and jasmonic acid (JA)-mediated defense responses. This is evident in the Arabidopsis ssi2/fab2 mutant, which encodes a defective stearoyl-acyl carrier protein-desaturase (S-ACP-DES) and consequently accumulates(More)
Plant oils containing ω-7 fatty acids (FAs; palmitoleic 16:1Δ(9) and cis-vaccenic 18:1Δ(11)) have potential as sustainable feedstocks for producing industrially important octene via metathesis chemistry. Engineering plants to produce seeds that accumulate high levels of any unusual FA has been an elusive goal. We achieved high levels of ω-7 FA accumulation(More)
The orchids Ophrys sphegodes and O. exaltata are reproductively isolated from each other by the attraction of two different, highly specific pollinator species. For pollinator attraction, flowers chemically mimic the pollinators' sex pheromones, the key components of which are alkenes with different double-bond positions. This study identifies genes likely(More)
Exchanging the identity of amino acids at four key locations within the Arabidopsis thaliana oleate desaturase (FAD2) and the Lesquerella fendleri hydroxylase/desaturase (LFAH) was shown to influence partitioning between desaturation and hydroxylation (Broun, P., Shanklin, J., Whittle, E., and Somerville, C. (1998) Science 282, 1315-1317). We report that(More)
Higher plants exhibit extensive diversity in the composition of seed storage fatty acids. This is largely due to the presence of various combinations of double or triple bonds and hydroxyl or epoxy groups, which are synthesized by a family of structurally similar enzymes. As few as four amino acid substitutions can convert an oleate 12-desaturase to a(More)
It is estimated that plants contain thousands of fatty acid structures, many of which arise by the action of membrane-bound desaturases and desaturase-like enzymes. The details of "unusual" e.g., hydroxyl or conjugated, fatty acid formation remain elusive, because these enzymes await structural characterization. However, soluble plant acyl-ACP (acyl carrier(More)
The stereochemistry of palmitoyl-ACP Delta(4) desaturase-mediated dehydrogenation has been examined by tracking the fate of deuterium atoms located on stereospecifically monodeuterated substrates-(4S)- and (4R)-[4-(2)H(1)]-palmitoyl-ACP and (5S)- and (5R)-[5-(2)H(1)]-palmitoyl-ACP. It was found that the introduction of the (Z)-double bond between C-4 and(More)
Six amino acid locations in the soluble castor Delta(9)-18:0-acyl carrier protein (ACP) desaturase were identified that can affect substrate specificity. Combinatorial saturation mutagenesis of these six amino acids, in conjunction with selection, using an unsaturated fatty acid auxotroph system, led to the isolation of variants with up to 15-fold increased(More)