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Computer models offer many attractive benefits. However, the modeling of cardiac tissue is computationally expensive due to several physical constraints which result in fine spatiotemporal discretization over large spatiotemporal regions. Our laboratory has been actively trying to develop new techniques to make large scale cardiac simulations tractable over(More)
Direct electrical coupling between neurons can be the result of both electrotonic current transfer through gap junctions and extracellular fields. Intracellular recordings from CA1 pyramidal neurons of rat hippocampal slices showed two different types of small-amplitude coupling potentials: short-duration (5 ms) biphasic spikelets, which resembled(More)
UNLABELLED Defibrillation depends on conductivity and disorganization. INTRODUCTION Cardiac fibrillation is the deterioration of the heart's normally well-organized activity into one or more meandering spiral waves, which subsequently break up into many meandering wave fronts. Delivery of an electric shock (defibrillation) is the only effective way of(More)
Vascular cells communicate electrically to coordinate their activity and control tissue blood flow. To foster a quantitative understanding of this fundamental process, we developed a computational model that was structured to mimic a skeletal muscle resistance artery. Each endothelial cell and smooth muscle cell in our virtual artery was treated as the(More)
The bidomain equations are the most complete description of cardiac electrical activity. Their numerical solution is, however, computationally demanding, especially in three dimensions, because of the fine temporal and spatial sampling required. This paper methodically examines computational performance when solving the bidomain equations. Several(More)
INTRODUCTION Atrial fibrillation is the most common cardiac arrhythmia. In ablation procedures, identification of the reentrant pathways is vital. This has proven difficult because of the complex morphology of the atria. The purpose of this study was to ascertain the role of specific anatomic structures on reentry induction and maintenance. METHOD AND(More)
BACKGROUND Resistant ventricular fibrillation, refibrillation. and diminished myocardial contractility are important factors leading to poor survival after cardiac arrest. We hypothesized that dantrolene improves survival after ventricular fibrillation (VF) by rectifying the calcium dysregulation caused by VF. METHODS AND RESULTS VF was induced in 26(More)
Classical concepts of atrial fibrillation (AF) have been rooted in Moe's multiple-wavelet hypothesis and simple cellular-automaton computer model. Recent experimental work has raised questions about the multiple-wavelet mechanism, suggesting a discrete "driver region" underlying AF. We reexplored the theoretical basis for AF with a 2-dimensional computer(More)
The bidomain equations are considered to be one of the most complete descriptions of the electrical activity in cardiac tissue, but large scale simulations, as resulting from discretization of an entire heart, remain a computational challenge due to the elliptic portion of the problem, the part associated with solving the extracellular potential. In such(More)
AIMS The duration and morphology of the T wave predict risk for ventricular fibrillation. A transmural gradient in action potential duration (APD) in the ventricular wall has been suggested to underlie the T wave in humans. We hypothesize that the transmural gradient in APD compensates for the normal endocardium-to-epicardium activation sequence and(More)