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Evolutionary studies necessary to dissect diverse biological processes have been limited by the lack of reverse genetic approaches in most organisms with sequenced genomes. We established a broadly applicable strategy using zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) and transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) for targeted disruption of endogenous genes(More)
Exploitation of custom-designed nucleases to induce DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) at genomic locations of choice has transformed our ability to edit genomes, regardless of their complexity. DSBs can trigger either error-prone repair pathways that induce random mutations at the break sites or precise homology-directed repair pathways that generate specific(More)
In many species, a dosage compensation complex (DCC) is targeted to X chromosomes of one sex to equalize levels of X-gene products between males (1X) and females (2X). Here we identify cis-acting regulatory elements that target the Caenorhabditis elegans X chromosome for repression by the DCC. The DCC binds to discrete, dispersed sites on X of two types.(More)
The genomic sequences of three bronze alleles from Zea mays, Bz-McC, Bz-W22 and bz-R, are presented together with their flanking sequences. The bronze locus encodes UDPglucose flavonoid glucosyl-transferase (UFGT), an anthocyanin biosynthetic enzyme. The wild-type alleles Bz-McC and Bz-W22 condition purple phenotypes in the seed and plant, while bz-R(More)
Chromosome breakage in maize can result from an interaction between certain transposable elements. When an Ac (Activator) element and a state I Ds (Dissociation) element are present together in the genome, either linked or unlinked, breaks occur regularly at the locus of the Ds element. We show here that breaks occur with high frequency at or near the locus(More)
The FATTY ACID ELONGATION1 (FAE1) gene of Arabidopsis is required for the synthesis of very long chain fatty acids in the seed. The product of the FAE1 gene is presumed to be a condensing enzyme that extends the chain length of fatty acids from C18 to C20 and C22. We report here the cloning of FAE1 by directed transposon tagging with the maize element(More)
The autonomous maize transposon Activator (Ac) has been used in maize for gene isolation by tagging and may prove similarly useful in other species. To test the feasibility of gene tagging with heterospecific transposons, we have examined three key genetic properties of a slightly modified Ac in tobacco. First, we show that frequencies of germinal excision(More)
We have shown before that the Ac element from the maize bz-m2(Ac) allele, located in the short arm of chromosome 9 (9S), transposes preferentially to sites that are linked to the bz donor locus. Yet, about half of the Ac transpositions recovered from bz-m2(Ac) are in receptor sites not linked to the donor locus. In this study, we have analyzed the(More)
The self-mobile maize transposable element Ac (Activator) displays two trans-acting genetic functions: it induces transposition of the element Ds (Dissociation) but, as its dosage is increased, it also inhibits transposition. Previous work has shown that the 4563 base pair (bp)-long Ac element contains three open reading frames (ORF's) and that a deletion(More)
Male infertility is a long-standing enigma of significant medical concern. The integrity of sperm chromatin is a clinical indicator of male fertility and in vitro fertilization potential: chromosome aneuploidy and DNA decondensation or damage are correlated with reproductive failure. Identifying conserved proteins important for sperm chromatin structure and(More)