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Plants and animals recognize microbial invaders by detecting pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) such as flagellin. However, the importance of flagellin perception for disease resistance has, until now, not been demonstrated. Here we show that treatment of plants with flg22, a peptide representing the elicitor-active epitope of flagellin, induces(More)
Methylation of cytosines is an essential epigenetic modification in mammalian genomes, yet the rules that govern methylation patterns remain largely elusive. To gain insights into this process, we generated base-pair-resolution mouse methylomes in stem cells and neuronal progenitors. Advanced quantitative analysis identified low-methylated regions (LMRs)(More)
Cytosine methylation is required for mammalian development and is often perturbed in human cancer. To determine how this epigenetic modification is distributed in the genomes of primary and transformed cells, we used an immunocapturing approach followed by DNA microarray analysis to generate methylation profiles of all human chromosomes at 80-kb resolution(More)
The light environment is a key factor that governs a multitude of developmental processes during the entire life cycle of plants. An important and increasing part of the incident sunlight encompasses a segment of the UV-B region (280-320 nm) that is not entirely absorbed by the ozone layer in the stratosphere of the earth. This portion of the solar(More)
In higher eukaryotes, histone methylation is involved in maintaining cellular identity during somatic development. As most nucleosomes are replaced by protamines during spermatogenesis, it is unclear whether histone modifications function in paternal transmission of epigenetic information. Here we show that two modifications important for Trithorax- and(More)
Glomalean fungi induce and colonize symbiotic tissue called arbuscular mycorrhiza on the roots of most land plants. Other fungi also colonize plants but cause disease not symbiosis. Whole-transcriptome analysis using a custom-designed Affymetrix Gene-Chip and confirmation with real-time RT-PCR revealed 224 genes affected during arbuscular mycorrhizal(More)
CONSTITUTIVELY PHOTOMORPHOGENIC1 (COP1) is a negative regulator of photomorphogenesis in Arabidopsis thaliana. COP1 functions as an E3 ubiquitin ligase, targeting select proteins for proteasomal degradation in plants as well as in mammals. Among its substrates is the basic domain/leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factor ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL5 (HY5), one of(More)
Duplication of eukaryotic genomes during S phase is coordinated in space and time. In order to identify zones of initiation and cell-type- as well as gender-specific plasticity of DNA replication, we profiled replication timing, histone acetylation, and transcription throughout the Drosophila genome. We observed two waves of replication initiation with many(More)
Magnaporthe oryzae causes rice blast, the most serious foliar fungal disease of cultivated rice (Oryza sativa). During hemibiotrophic leaf infection, the pathogen simultaneously combines biotrophic and necrotrophic growth. Here, we provide cytological and molecular evidence that, in contrast to leaf tissue infection, the fungus adopts a uniquely biotrophic(More)
The ultraviolet-B (UV-B) portion of the solar radiation functions as an environmental signal for which plants have evolved specific and sensitive UV-B perception systems. The UV-B-specific UV RESPONSE LOCUS 8 (UVR8) and the multifunctional E3 ubiquitin ligase CONSTITUTIVELY PHOTOMORPHOGENIC 1 (COP1) are key regulators of the UV-B response. We show here that(More)