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Plants and animals recognize microbial invaders by detecting pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) such as flagellin. However, the importance of flagellin perception for disease resistance has, until now, not been demonstrated. Here we show that treatment of plants with flg22, a peptide representing the elicitor-active epitope of flagellin, induces(More)
Methylation of cytosines is an essential epigenetic modification in mammalian genomes, yet the rules that govern methylation patterns remain largely elusive. To gain insights into this process, we generated base-pair-resolution mouse methylomes in stem cells and neuronal progenitors. Advanced quantitative analysis identified low-methylated regions (LMRs)(More)
Cytosine methylation is required for mammalian development and is often perturbed in human cancer. To determine how this epigenetic modification is distributed in the genomes of primary and transformed cells, we used an immunocapturing approach followed by DNA microarray analysis to generate methylation profiles of all human chromosomes at 80-kb resolution(More)
Organ-specific metastasis is governed, in part, by interactions between chemokine receptors on cancer cells and matching chemokines in target organs. For example, malignant breast cancer cells express the chemokine receptor CXCR4 and commonly metastasize to organs that are an abundant source of the CXCR4-specific ligand stromal cell-derived factor-1alpha(More)
RNA interference and the microRNA (miRNA) pathway can induce sequence-specific mRNA degradation and/or translational repression. The human genome encodes hundreds of miRNAs that can post-transcriptionally repress thousands of genes. Using reporter constructs, we observed that degradation of mRNAs bearing sites imperfectly complementary to the endogenous(More)
Duplication of the genome during the S phase of the cell cycle does not occur simultaneously; rather, different sequences are replicated at different times. The replication timing of specific sequences can change during development; however, the determinants of this dynamic process are poorly understood. To gain insights into the contribution of(More)
Prefoldins (PFDs) are members of a recently identified, small-molecular weight protein family able to assemble into molecular chaperone complexes. Here we describe an unusually large member of this family, termed URI, that forms complexes with other small-molecular weight PFDs and with RPB5, a shared subunit of all three RNA polymerases. Functional analysis(More)
Induction and promotion of liver cancer by exposure to non-genotoxic carcinogens coincides with epigenetic perturbations, including specific changes in DNA methylation. Here we investigate the genome-wide dynamics of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) as a likely intermediate of 5-methylcytosine (5mC) demethylation in a DNA methylation reprogramming pathway. We(More)
MOTIVATION Most of the available tools for transcription factor binding site prediction are based on methods which assume no sequence dependence between the binding site base positions. Our primary objective was to investigate the statistical basis for either a claim of dependence or independence, to determine whether such a claim is generally true, and to(More)
INTRODUCTION In breast cancer, deregulation of the WNT signaling pathway occurs by autocrine mechanisms. WNT ligands and Frizzled receptors are coexpressed in primary breast tumors and cancer cell lines. Moreover, many breast tumors show hypermethylation of the secreted Frizzled-related protein 1 (sFRP1) promoter region, causing low expression of this WNT(More)