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In extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) environments both laser produced plasma (LPP) and gas discharge produced plasma (GDPP) configurations face serious issues regarding components lifetime and performance under particle bombardment, in particular collector mirrors. For both configurations debris, fast ions, fast neutrals, and condensable EUV radiator(More)
EUV metallic light radiators such as Sn or Li used for lithography will limit the lifetime of collector optics in source devices by both contamination and irradiation. Generation of EUV light requires the use of hot, dense plasma. Pinch dynamics generates fast ions and atoms, such as metallic sources (Sn, Li) with energies ranging from 100 eV up to several(More)
Atmospheric drag measurements obtained from the study of the orbital decay of Pioneer Venus 1 indicate that atomic oxygen predominates in the Venus atmosphere above 160 kilometers. Drag measurements give evidence that conditions characteristic of a planetary thermosphere disappear near sundown, with inferred exospheric temperatures sharply dropping from(More)
Measurements of satellite drag obtained from the orbital decay of the Pioneer Venus orbiter on the nightside of Venus indicate an atomic oxygen atmosphere near 155 kilometers (an order of magnitude less dense than expected) with nighttime inferred exospheric temperatures averaging as low as 110 K. Densities at these altitudes decrease sharply from day to(More)
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