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The oil from the 2010 Deepwater Horizon spill in the Gulf of Mexico was documented by shoreline assessment teams as stranding on 1,773 km of shoreline. Beaches comprised 50.8%, marshes 44.9%, and other shoreline types 4.3% of the oiled shoreline. Shoreline cleanup activities were authorized on 660 km, or 73.3% of oiled beaches and up to 71 km, or 8.9% of(More)
Depending on the dose and dosing, pentoxifylline (PTX) treatment can improve or worsen survival from lipopolysaccharide (LPS) shock in rats. Intraperitoneal (i.p.) PTX, 20 mg/kg, administered once 15 min after intravenous (i.v.) LPS (17 mg/kg), significantly improved survival in unanesthetized LPS-shocked rats. Multiple 20 mg/kg PTX injections (five total,(More)
Three coastal sites, heavily oiled from the 1974 Metula oil spill in the Strait of Magellan [two are salt marshes (East and West) and the third, an intertidal asphalt pavement], were examined during May 1998. Complete 'total oil analyses' were performed on the oil samples collected from these sites. Chemical fingerprinting data reveal, except for those(More)
A small experimental oil spill was conducted on the northern tip of Baffin Island Nunavut, Canada (72 degrees 31' N, 79 degrees 50' W) in August 1981, and the natural weathering of the oil has been followed by periodic visits. This paper reports on the chemical composition of oil collected in August 2001. The vast majority of the initial oil has gone, but(More)
The interaction of fine mineral particles with stranded oil in an aqueous medium reduces the adhesion of the oil to solid surfaces, such as sediments or bedrock. The net result is the formation of stable, micron-sized, oil droplets that disperse into the water column. In turn, the increase in surface area makes the oil more available for biodegradation.(More)
Small amounts of oil that can persist for decades in the intertidal zone of coarse-sediment beaches have been documented in a few well-studied cases. Oil that survives attenuation over the short-term (weeks to months) will persist until there is a change in the environmental conditions, as might occur where there is a seasonal storm-wave climate or as a(More)
The Shoreline Cleanup Assessment Team (SCAT) process is a tool to assess oiled shorelines and is now an integral component of spill response operations. The key element of a SCAT survey is a systematic documentation using standard terms and definitions of the shoreline in the areas affected by an oil spill. SCAT programs were initially established to(More)
Following the spill of fuel oils from the New Carissa in February 1999, approximately 300 km of beaches on the Pacific coast of North America were surveyed. A long-term observation program focused on the documentation of stranded tar balls in the vicinity of the spill site. Systematic beach surveys which were conducted over the period March 1999 to April(More)