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The recent advances in high throughput screening for biological activities and combinatorial chemistry have greatly expanded the number of drug candidates. Rapid screening for BBB penetration potential early in drug discovery programs provides important information for compound selection and guidance of synthesis for desirable CNS properties. In this paper,(More)
Data from permeability profiling using the parallel artificial membrane permeability assay (PAMPA) and cell monolayer (Caco-2 and MDR1-MDCKII) methods were compared for two published compound sets and one in-house set. A majority of compounds in each set correlated (R(2) = 0.76-0.92), indicating the predominance of passive diffusion in the permeation of(More)
Recently, it has been proposed that drug permeation is essentially carrier-mediated only and that passive lipoidal diffusion is negligible. This opposes the prevailing hypothesis of drug permeation through biological membranes, which integrates the contribution of multiple permeation mechanisms, including both carrier-mediated and passive lipoidal(More)
Evidence supporting the action of passive diffusion and carrier-mediated (CM) transport in drug bioavailability and disposition is discussed to refute the recently proposed theory that drug transport is CM-only and that new transporters will be discovered that possess transport characteristics ascribed to passive diffusion. Misconceptions and faulty(More)
A method using reverse phase liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and cassette administration was developed for in vivo brain and plasma exposure profiling to assist early CNS drug discovery programs. Three to four compounds were grouped in cassettes for dosing and analysis. Compounds in the cassettes were selected to minimize possible analytical(More)
Endocannabinoids (ECs), such as anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), modulate a number of physiological processes, including pain, appetite and emotional state. Levels of ECs are tightly controlled by enzymatic biosynthesis and degradation in vivo. However, there is limited knowledge about the enzymes that terminate signaling of the major(More)
  • E H Kerns
  • 2001
The drug development bottlenecks of attrition and development time are being addressed by acquiring a profile of the candidate's physicochemical and physiological properties during early discovery phases. This information assists selection and optimization of pharmaceutical properties in parallel with activity. High throughput methods to measure the(More)
The pharmaceutical industry is facing an ever increasing challenge to deliver safer and more effective medicines. Traditionally, drug discovery programs were driven solely by potency, regardless of the properties. As a result, the development of non-drug-like molecules was costly, had high risk and low success rate. To meet the challenges, the bar has been(More)
Data from in vitro plasma protein binding experiments that determine the fraction of protein-bound drug are frequently used in drug discovery to guide structure design and to prioritize compounds for in vivo studies. However, we consider that these practices are usually misleading, because in vivo efficacy is determined by the free (unbound) drug(More)
Measurement and application of compound properties for candidate selection and optimization is an emerging trend. Property-based design supplements successful activity-based strategies to produce drug-like candidates. High-throughput screening hits are evaluated for integrity and aggregation to ensure quality leads. Solubility data assures accurate activity(More)