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The cDNA encoding the C4 isoenzyme of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH-C4) was engineered for expression in Escherichia coli. The Ldh-c open reading frame was constructed as a cassette for production of the native protein. The modified Ldh-c cDNA was subcloned into the prokaryotic expression vector pKK223-3. Transformed E. coli cells were grown to mid-exponential(More)
Establishing mammalian germ-cell lines capable of differentiation in vitro would greatly facilitate the study of gametogenesis and the meiotic process that is so fundamental for reproduction and the maintenance of genetic diversity of the species. We have established two germ-cell lines [GC-2spd(ts) and GC-3spc(ts)] by cotransfecting primary mouse(More)
A comparison of nucleotide sequences of murine Ldh-a and Ldh-c genes and human LDH-A, LDH-B, and LDH-C reveals that mouse Ldh-c has lost the CpG "island" present in the genes for the somatic isozymes. However, the human LDH-C gene has a CpG-rich region of 230 bp surrounding its promoter. Endonuclease sensitivity coupled with polymerase chain reaction (PCR)(More)
The zinc finger transcription factor GLI1 is the mediator of signaling by members of the Hedgehog (Hh) family. Male mice in which Desert hedgehog (Dhh), an Hh homologue expressed in Sertoli cells of the testis, was knocked out are sterile, suggesting that the Dhh/GLI1 pathway plays a role in spermatogenesis. Using an antiserum raised against human GLI1, we(More)
In previous experiments, the sperm-specific isozyme of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH-C) had been purified from mouse testes and shown to suppress the fertility of female baboons by 70% compared to controls. Although these results demonstrated the feasibility of this approach for contraceptive vaccine development, it is not practical to purify enough of the(More)
The sequence and structure of human testis-specific L-lactate dehydrogenase [LDHC4, LDHX; (L)-lactate: NAD+ oxidoreductase, EC] has been derived from analysis of a complementary DNA (cDNA) clone comprising the complete protein coding region of the enzyme. From the deduced amino acid sequence, human LDHC4 is as different from rodent LDHC4 (73%(More)
The human testis-specific lactate dehydrogenase c gene (ldh-c) shows an exceptionally large window of expression throughout pre- and postmeiotic stages of the male germ cell lineage. In order to characterize the multiple stage-specific transcription factors necessary for ldh-c expression, we previously characterized the human ldh-c core promoter. Here, we(More)
The goals of this study were to determine the site at which fertility is impaired in mice immunized with LDH-C4 and to determine whether immunization of both males and females would have a greater antifertility effect than immunization of one sex alone. Mice were immunized with LDH-C4 in two systemic doses in Freund's adjuvants and two gastric doses in(More)
Immunization of female rabbits and mice with the sperm-specific isozyme of lactate dehydrogenase, LDH-C4, significantly reduced their fertility. Similar studies have been extended to nonhuman primates. Two female baboons, immunized with human LDH-C4, produced low antibody titers. These titers were markedly enhanced by booster injections of murine LDH-C4. An(More)
The sperm-specific isozyme of murine lactate dehydrogenase (LDH-C4) was injected into female mice of various strains. Two regulatory phenotypes characterize the resultant immunity to LDH-C4: one is manifested by high, intermediate or low levels of response, the other by the immediate or delayed maturation of peak titer. The response of several strains can(More)