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UNLABELLED This review integrates eight aspects of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) circulatory dynamics: formation rate, pressure, flow, volume, turnover rate, composition, recycling and reabsorption. Novel ways to modulate CSF formation emanate from recent analyses of choroid plexus transcription factors (E2F5), ion transporters (NaHCO3 cotransport), transport(More)
Two major physiological roles for the pineal hormone melatonin (MEL) have been identified in vertebrates: the hormone influences circadian rhythmicity and regulates seasonal responses to changes in day length. These effects of MEL are thought to be due to interaction with specific, high affinity MEL receptors in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) and(More)
Sleep disruption and other circadian rhythm disturbances are frequently seen in dementia patients. In this study, we examined the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), the putative site of the hypothalamic circadian pacemaker, to determine the nature and degree of pathologic changes caused by severe dementia. Neuropathologic examination indicated that among 30(More)
According to the traditional understanding of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) physiology, the majority of CSF is produced by the choroid plexus, circulates through the ventricles, the cisterns, and the subarachnoid space to be absorbed into the blood by the arachnoid villi. This review surveys key developments leading to the traditional concept. Challenging this(More)
Upregulation of certain growth factors in the central nervous system can alter brain fluid dynamics. Hydrocephalus was produced in adult Sprague-Dawley rats by infusing recombinant basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2) at 1 microg/day into a lateral ventricle for 2, 3, 5, or 10-12 days. Lateral and third ventricular enlargement progressively increased from(More)
The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)-generating choroid plexus (CP) has many V1 binding sites for arginine vasopressin (AVP). AVP decreases CSF formation rate and choroidal blood flow, but little is known about how AVP alters ion transport across the blood-CSF barrier. Adult rat lateral ventricle CP was loaded with 36Cl-, exposed to AVP for 20 min, and then placed(More)
Aging is the most important single risk factor for developing Alzheimer disease. We measured amyloid-beta peptide (Abeta) levels in rat cerebral cortex and hippocampus during normal aging of Brown-Norway/Fischer rats. Amyloid-beta accumulation was associated with expression of the Abeta influx transporter, the receptor for advanced glycation end-products(More)
Sleep-wake cycle disturbances suggest that circadian rhythms may be disrupted in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this study, we examined the circadian rhythms of core-body temperature and locomotor activity in 28 patients with probable AD and 10 healthy controls. AD patients had higher percent nocturnal activity than controls, corresponding to(More)
BACKGROUND Caregiver exhaustion is a frequent consequence of sleep disturbance and rest-activity rhythm disruption that occurs in dementia. This exhaustion is the causal factor most frequently cited by caregivers in making the decision to institutionalize patients with dementia. Recent studies have implicated dysfunction of the circadian pacemaker in the(More)
In vitro autoradiography with 125I-labeled melatonin was used to examine melatonin binding sites in human hypothalamus. Specific 125I-labeled melatonin binding was localized to the suprachiasmatic nuclei, the site of a putative biological clock, and was not apparent in other hypothalamic regions. Specific 125I-labeled melatonin binding was consistently(More)