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This review integrates eight aspects of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) circulatory dynamics: formation rate, pressure, flow, volume, turnover rate, composition, recycling and reabsorption. Novel ways to modulate CSF formation emanate from recent analyses of choroid plexus transcription factors (E2F5), ion transporters (NaHCO3 cotransport), transport enzymes(More)
Alzheimer disease (AD) is characterized by deposits of an aggregated 42-amino-acid beta-amyloid peptide (beta AP) in the brain and cerebrovasculature. After a concentration-dependent lag period during in vitro incubations, soluble preparations of synthetic beta AP slowly form fibrillar aggregates that resemble natural amyloid and are measurable by(More)
Upregulation of certain growth factors in the central nervous system can alter brain fluid dynamics. Hydrocephalus was produced in adult Sprague-Dawley rats by infusing recombinant basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2) at 1 microg/day into a lateral ventricle for 2, 3, 5, or 10-12 days. Lateral and third ventricular enlargement progressively increased from(More)
Two major physiological roles for the pineal hormone melatonin (MEL) have been identified in vertebrates: the hormone influences circadian rhythmicity and regulates seasonal responses to changes in day length. These effects of MEL are thought to be due to interaction with specific, high affinity MEL receptors in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) and(More)
According to the traditional understanding of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) physiology, the majority of CSF is produced by the choroid plexus, circulates through the ventricles, the cisterns, and the subarachnoid space to be absorbed into the blood by the arachnoid villi. This review surveys key developments leading to the traditional concept. Challenging this(More)
Sleep disruption and other circadian rhythm disturbances are frequently seen in dementia patients. In this study, we examined the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), the putative site of the hypothalamic circadian pacemaker, to determine the nature and degree of pathologic changes caused by severe dementia. Neuropathologic examination indicated that among 30(More)
The distribution of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) was studied by light-microscopic immunocytochemistry in the hypothalamo-pituitary complex of humans, monkeys, ferrets, bats, and rats. LHRH-immunoreactive fibers were identified in the median eminence of all these species, but the precise location of these fibers varied. In rats, the vast(More)
The distribution of estrogen receptor protein-alpha (ER-alpha)-containing cells in the human hypothalamus and adjacent regions was studied using a monoclonal antibody (H222) raised against ER-alpha derived from MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. Reaction product was found in restricted populations of neurons and astrocyte-like cells. Neurons immunoreactive(More)
The choroid plexus plays a key role in supporting neuronal function by secreting cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and may be involved in the regulation of various soluble factors. Because the choroid plexus is involved in growth factor secretion as well as CSF dynamics, it is important to understand how growth factors in CSF interact with the brain parenchyma as(More)
JC virus (JCV), a member of the polyomavirus family, causes a demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS) in humans known as progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. Although glial cells are the principal target of JCV productive infection in progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy patients, little is known regarding the site of JCV(More)