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Parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion is regulated by a cell surface Ca2+ receptor that detects small changes in the level of plasma Ca2+. Because this G protein-coupled receptor conceivably provides a distinct molecular target for drugs useful in treating bone and mineral-related disorders, we sought to design small organic molecules that act on the Ca2+(More)
Parathyroid cells express a cell surface receptor, coupled to the mobilization of intracellular Ca2+, that is activated by increases in the concentration of extracellular Ca2+ and by a variety of other cations. This "Ca2+ receptor" (CaR) serves as the primary physiological regulator of parathyroid hormone secretion. Alterations in the CaR have been proposed(More)
Despite the discovery of many ions and molecules that activate the Ca2+ receptor, there are no known ligands that block this receptor. Reported here are the pharmacodynamic properties of a small molecule, NPS 2143, which acts as an antagonist at the Ca2+ receptor. This compound blocked (IC50 of 43 nM) increases in cytoplasmic Ca2+ concentrations [Ca2+]i(More)
N-(3-[2-Chlorophenyl]propyl)-(R)-alpha-methyl-3-methoxybenzylamine (NPS R-568) is an orally active compound that activates Ca(2+) receptors on parathyroid cells and rapidly suppresses plasma levels of parathyroid hormone (PTH) and Ca(2+) (ED(50), 1 and 10 mg/kg, respectively). We now show that increased calcitonin secretion contributes to NPS R-568-induced(More)
We have examined the effects of a number of excitatory amino acid antagonists on transmission at the cochlear nerve-nucleus magnocellularis synapse in the chicken. Using an in vitro preparation and bath application of drugs, we studied the effects of kynurenic acid and several related substances, streptomycin and a selective N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor(More)
Calcimimetics like N-(3-[2-chlorophenyl]propyl)-(R)-alpha-methyl-3-methoxybenzylamine (NPS R-568) potentiate the effects of extracellular Ca(2+) on parathyroid Ca(2+) receptors and inhibit parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion in vitro. When administered by gavage to normal rats in this study, NPS R-568 caused a rapid, dose-dependent (ED(50), 1.1 +/- 0.7(More)
Calcimimetic compounds, which activate the parathyroid cell Ca(2+) receptor (CaR) and inhibit parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion, are under experimental study as a treatment for hyperparathyroidism. This report describes the salient pharmacodynamic properties, using several test systems, of a new calcimimetic compound, cinacalcet HCl. Cinacalcet HCl(More)
The extracellular calcium (Ca(2+)(o))-sensing receptor (CaR) can be potentiated by allosteric activators including calcimimetics and l-amino acids. In this study, we found that many mutations had differential effects on the functional modulation of the CaR by these two allosteric activators, supporting the idea that these modulators act through distinct(More)
We previously demonstrated that the human calcium-sensing receptor (CaR) is allosterically activated by L-amino acids (Conigrave, A. D., Quinn, S. J., and Brown, E. M. (2000) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 97, 4814-4819). However, the domain-based location of amino acid binding has been uncertain. We now show that the Venus Fly Trap (VFT) domain of CaR,(More)
The Ca(2+) receptor on the surface of parathyroid cells is the primary molecular entity regulating secretion of parathyroid hormone (PTH). Because of this, it is a particularly appealing target for new drugs intended to increase or decrease circulating levels of PTH. Calcilytic compounds are Ca(2+) receptor antagonists which increase the secretion of PTH.(More)