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The mammalian auditory cortex normally undergoes rapid and progressive functional maturation. Here we show that rearing infant rat pups in continuous, moderate-level noise delayed the emergence of adultlike topographic representational order and the refinement of response selectivity in the primary auditory cortex (A1) long beyond normal developmental(More)
PURPOSE The prognostic role of extent of resection (EOR) of low-grade gliomas (LGGs) is a major controversy. We designed a retrospective study to assess the influence of EOR on long-term outcomes of LGGs. PATIENTS AND METHODS The study population (N = 216) included adults undergoing initial resection of hemispheric LGG. Region-of-interest analysis was(More)
OBJECT Seizures play an important role in the clinical presentation and postoperative quality of life of patients who undergo surgical resection of low-grade gliomas (LGGs). The aim of this study was to identify factors that influenced perioperative seizure characteristics and postoperative seizure control. METHODS The authors performed a retrospective(More)
The functional and molecular similarities and distinctions between human and murine astrocytes are poorly understood. Here, we report the development of an immunopanning method to acutely purify astrocytes from fetal, juvenile, and adult human brains and to maintain these cells in serum-free cultures. We found that human astrocytes have abilities similar to(More)
The specific function of microglia, the tissue resident macrophages of the brain and spinal cord, has been difficult to ascertain because of a lack of tools to distinguish microglia from other immune cells, thereby limiting specific immunostaining, purification, and manipulation. Because of their unique developmental origins and predicted functions, the(More)
Speaking is one of the most complex actions that we perform, but nearly all of us learn to do it effortlessly. Production of fluent speech requires the precise, coordinated movement of multiple articulators (for example, the lips, jaw, tongue and larynx) over rapid time scales. Here we used high-resolution, multi-electrode cortical recordings during the(More)
During speech perception, linguistic elements such as consonants and vowels are extracted from a complex acoustic speech signal. The superior temporal gyrus (STG) participates in high-order auditory processing of speech, but how it encodes phonetic information is poorly understood. We used high-density direct cortical surface recordings in humans while they(More)
OBJECTIVE To characterize the natural course of traumatic intraparenchymal contusions and hematomas (IPHs) and to identify risk factors for IPH progression in the acute post-injury period. METHODS A retrospective analysis was performed on a prospective observational database containing 113 head trauma patients exhibiting 229 initially nonoperated acute(More)
Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) was approved by the US FDA in 1997 as an adjunctive treatment for medically refractory epilepsy. It is considered for use in patients who are poor candidates for resection or those in whom resection has failed. However, disagreement regarding the utility of VNS in epilepsy continues because of the variability in benefit(More)
Humans possess a remarkable ability to attend to a single speaker's voice in a multi-talker background. How the auditory system manages to extract intelligible speech under such acoustically complex and adverse listening conditions is not known, and, indeed, it is not clear how attended speech is internally represented. Here, using multi-electrode surface(More)