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Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has been attributed to aberrant mucosal immunity to the intestinal microbiota. The transcription factor XBP1, a key component of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response, is required for development and maintenance of secretory cells and linked to JNK activation. We hypothesized that a stressful environmental milieu in(More)
BACKGROUND Acute mental stress evokes responses in the cardiovascular and the immune systems. In particular, the subset of natural killer (NK) cells is found to be responsive to mental stress. The role of beta-adrenergic mechanisms in these processes in the subject of this investigation. METHODS AND RESULTS Healthy male volunteers (n = 31) were subjected(More)
Upon stimulation by microbial products through TLR, dendritic cells (DC) acquire the capacity to prime naive T cells and to initiate a proinflammatory immune response. Recently, we have shown that APC within the CNS of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients contain peptidoglycan (PGN), a major cell wall component of Gram-positive bacteria, which signals through(More)
Multiple sclerosis lesion activity concurs with the extent of inflammation, demyelination and axonal suffering. Pro-inflammatory myeloid cells contribute to lesion development, but the self-limiting nature of lesions implies as yet unidentified anti-inflammatory mechanisms. We addressed the hypothesis that myelin ingestion by myeloid cells induces a foamy(More)
Epithelial regeneration is critical for barrier maintenance and organ function after intestinal injury. The intestinal stem cell (ISC) niche provides Wnt, Notch and epidermal growth factor (EGF) signals supporting Lgr5(+) crypt base columnar ISCs for normal epithelial maintenance. However, little is known about the regulation of the ISC compartment after(More)
In Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), ganglioside mimicry of Campylobacter jejuni lipo-oligosaccharide (LOS) drives the production of cross-reactive Abs to peripheral nerve gangliosides. We determined whether sialic acid residues in C. jejuni LOS modulate dendritic cell (DC) activation and subsequent B cell proliferation as a possible mechanism for the aberrant(More)
Guillain–Barré syndrome (GBS) is a post-infectious disease in which the human peripheral nervous system is affected after infection by specific pathogenic bacteria, including Campylobacter jejuni. GBS is suggested to be provoked by molecular mimicry between sialylated lipooligosaccharide (LOS) structures on the cell envelope of these bacteria and(More)
The physician treating children with inflammatory bowel disease is confronted with a number of specific problems, one of them being the lack of randomized, controlled drug trials in children. In this review, the role of nutritional therapy is discussed with a focus on primary treatment, especially for children with Crohn's disease. Then, the available(More)
Carcinoembryonic antigen-related cellular adhesion molecule 1 (CEACAM1) is a cell surface molecule that has been proposed to negatively regulate T cell function. We have shown that CEACAM1 is associated with specific regulation of T helper cell (Th)1 pathways, T-bet-mediated Th1 cytokine signaling, and Th1-mediated immunopathology in vivo. Mice treated with(More)
Carcinoembryonic Ag cell adhesion molecule 1 (CEACAM1) consists of highly related homologs in humans and rodents that are characterized by significant alternate splicing generating isoforms capable of negative intracellular signaling by virtue of two immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibition motifs in its cytoplasmic (cyt) tail. Although human T cells have(More)