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The protoplasm of Valonia macrophysa forms a delicate layer, only a few microns in thickness, which contains numerous chloroplasts and nuclei. The outer surface is in contact with the cell wall, the inner with the vacuolar sap. As far as microscopic observation goes, these two surfaces seem alike; but measurements of potential difference indicate that they… (More)
The Double Chooz experiment presents an indication of reactor electron antineutrino disappearance consistent with neutrino oscillations. An observed-to-predicted ratio of events of 0.944±0.016(stat)±0.040(syst) was obtained in 101 days of running at the Chooz nuclear power plant in France, with two 4.25 GW(th) reactors. The results were obtained from a… (More)
The P.D. between the interior of a cell of Valonia macrophysa and concentrated or diluted sea water applied externally is given by the empirical equation: See PDF for Equation where P.D.(s.w.) is the value observed when the external solution is sea water. The sign is that of the interior of the cell. In the chain: sea water, concn.(1) | Valonia | sea water,… (More)
The MIT Faculty has made this article openly available. Please share how this access benefits you. Your story matters. Double Chooz is unique among modern reactor-based neutrino experiments studying ¯ νe disappearance in that data can be collected with all reactors off. In this paper, we present data from 7.53 days of reactor-off running. Applying the same… (More)
In their influence on the P.D. across the protoplasm of Valonia macrophysa, Kütz., Li(+) and Cs(+) resemble Na(+), while Rb(+) and NH(4) (+) resemble K(+). The apparent mobilities of the ions in the external surface layer of Valonia protoplasm increase in the order: Cs(+), Na(+), Li(+) < Cl(-) < Rb(+) < K(+) < NH(4) (+).
In measurements of P.D. across the protoplasm in single cells, the presence of parallel circuits along the cell wall may cause serious difficulty. This is particularly the case with marine algae, such as Valonia, where the cell wall is imbibed with a highly conducting solution (sea water), and hence has low electrical resistance. In potential measurements… (More)