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As highland regions of Africa historically have been considered free of malaria, recent epidemics in these areas have raised concerns that high elevation malaria transmission may be increasing. Hypotheses about the reasons for this include changes in climate, land use and demographic patterns. We investigated the effect of land use change on malaria(More)
Two anthelmintic drugs used as cattle dewormers, ivermectin and moxidectin, were tested for their lethal and sublethal effects on the malarial vectors Anopheles gambiae s.s. and An. arabiensis. In the laboratory, direct addition of ivermectin to bovine blood reduced the survivorship and fecundity of mosquitoes fed on the blood. The median lethal(More)
Recent field studies have suggested that the dynamics of West Nile virus (WNV) transmission are influenced strongly by a few key super spreader bird species that function both as primary blood hosts of the vector mosquitoes (in particular Culex pipiens) and as reservoir-competent virus hosts. It has been hypothesized that human cases result from a shift in(More)
BACKGROUND High coverage of insecticide-treated bed nets in Asembo and low coverage in Seme, two adjacent communities in western Nyanza Province, Kenya; followed by expanded coverage of bed nets in Seme, as the Kenya national malaria programme rolled out; provided a natural experiment for quantification of changes in relative abundance of two primary(More)
Culex flavivirus (CxFV) is an insect-specific flavivirus globally distributed in mosquitoes of the genus Culex. CxFV was positively associated with West Nile virus (WNV) infection in a case-control study of 268 mosquito pools from an endemic focus of WNV transmission in Chicago, United States. Specifically, WNV-positive Culex mosquito pools were four times(More)
Models of the effects of environmental factors on West Nile virus disease risk have yielded conflicting outcomes. The role of precipitation has been especially difficult to discern from existing studies, due in part to habitat and behavior characteristics of specific vector species and because of differences in the temporal and spatial scales of the(More)
The distribution and abundance of Ixodes scapularis were studied in Wisconsin, northern Illinois, and portions of the Upper Peninsula of Michigan by inspecting small mammals for ticks and by collecting questing ticks at 138 locations in state parks and natural areas. Environmental data were gathered at a local level (i.e., micro and meso levels), and a(More)
BACKGROUND West Nile virus infection in humans in urban areas of the Midwestern United States has exhibited strong spatial clustering during epidemic years. We derived urban landscape classes from the physical and socio-economic factors hypothesized to be associated with West Nile Virus (WNV) transmission and compared those to human cases of illness in 2002(More)
We developed techniques for the genetic manipulation of Flavobacterium species and used it to characterize several promoters found in these bacteria. Our studies utilized Flavobacterium hibernum strain W22, an environmental strain we isolated from tree hole habitats of mosquito larvae. Plasmids from F. hibernum strain W22 were more efficiently(More)