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A self-organizing peer-to-peer system is built upon an application level overlay, whose topology is independent of underlying physical network. A well-routed message path in such systems may result in a long delay and excessive traffic due to the mismatch between logical and physical networks. In order to solve this problem, we present a family of(More)
In this paper, we propose a cache invalidation scheme called Invalidation by Absolute Validity Interval (IAVI) for mobile computing systems. In IAVI, we define an absolute validity interval (AVI), for each data item based on its dynamic property such as the update interval. A mobile client can verify the validity of a cached item by comparing the last(More)
Timed token networks such as FDDI networks has been widely deployed to support synchronous traffic. However the medium access control (MAC) protocol of FDDI allows transmission of synchronous messages up to at most one half of the total bandwidth of the network. Shin and Zheng has proposed a modification to the FDDI MAC protocol, called FDDI-M, which can(More)
Human metapneumovirus (hMPV), a newly discovered paramyxovirus, has been associated with acute respiratory tract infections (ARIs) ranging from upper ARIs to severe bronchiolitis and pneumonia. Important questions remain on the contribution of hMPV to ARIs and its impact on public health. During the 2001-2002 season, we conducted a collaborative study with(More)
Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) is a newly identified respiratory virus associated with respiratory tract infection in both adults and children. Previous reports showed that infection of hMPV appeared to be ubiquitous. To determine the seroprevalence of hMPV, a total of 576 human sera from patients in Saskatchewan, Canada, were screened by enzyme-linked(More)
To overcome the inherent lossy property of wireless links and increase network throughput, many multi-path routing protocols have been proposed to improve the reliability and latency of packet delivery in wireless networks. Multi-path routing protocols, however, do not take advantage of existing coding opportunities to maximize network throughput. In this(More)
Data caching on mobile clients is widely seen as an effective solution to improve system performance. In particular, cooperative caching, based on the idea of sharing and coordination of cache data among multiple users, can be particularly effective for information access in mobile ad hoc networks where mobile clients moving frequently and network topology(More)
BACKGROUND Internet social networking tools and the emerging web 2.0 technologies are providing a new way for web users and health workers in information sharing and knowledge dissemination. Based on the characters of immediate, two-way and large scale of impact, the internet social networking tools have been utilized as a solution in emergency response(More)