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Productive replication of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in brain macrophages and microglia is a critical component of viral neuropathogenesis. However, how virus-macrophage interactions lead to neurological disease remains incompletely understood. Possibly, a differential ability of virus to replicate in brain tissue macrophages versus(More)
Software watermarking is a tool used to combat software piracy by embedding identifying information into a program. Most existing proposals for software watermarking have the shortcoming that the mark can be destroyed via fairly straightforward semantics-preserving code transformations. This paper introduces path-based watermarking, a new approach to(More)
This paper presents an implementation of the novel water-marking method proposed by Venkatesan, Vazirani, and Sinha in their recent paper A Graph Theoretic Approach to Software Watermarking. An executable program is marked by the addition of code for which the topology of the control-flow graph encodes a watermark. We discuss issues that were identified(More)
In this paper, we discuss graph-theoretic approaches to software watermarking and fingerprinting. Software watermarking is used to discourage intellectual property theft and software fingerprinting is used to trace intellectual property copyright violations. We focus on two algorithms that encode information in software through the use of graph structures.(More)
We studied the effects of acute and chronic ethanol feeding on hepatic regeneration in rats after partial hepatectomy and toxic liver injury produced by D-galactosamine. Ethanol, when administered as a single dose (6 g/kg), inhibited 3H-thymidine incorporation into hepatic DNA; this effect depended in part on the time of ethanol feeding after partial(More)
Protein kinase activity toward the 40 S ribosomal protein S6 is activated 6-fold in regenerating rat liver following 70% hepatectomy. The kinase is maximally activated within 2 h after surgery, remains active up to 36 h after surgery, and declines rapidly thereafter. The post-hepatectomy S6 kinase activity exhibits structural and functional similarity to an(More)
We have studied a short term effect (96 hr) of ethanol on hormone-stimulated DNA synthesis in a primary rat hepatocyte culture system. Studies were also performed with respect to total RNA and protein synthesis as well as albumin secretion measured by a solid-phase radioimmunoassay. We found that ethanol, when added to cultured hepatocytes, resulted in a(More)
Macrophages were isolated from the mammary glands of non-lactating (dry) cows and their ability to phagocytose and kill staphylococci in vitro assessed. Normal bovine serum enhanced the uptake of staphylococci and was required for optimal killing in the bactericidal test. Dry gland secretion interfered with uptake. Secretions taken progressively into the(More)
AIMS Cold stress has been shown to produce dramatic increases in 2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-Glucose ((18)FDG) accumulation by brown adipose tissue (BAT) in rodents. However, neither the effects of other types of stress on (18)FDG accumulation nor the effects of stressors on the accumulation of tracers of other aspects of energy metabolism have been evaluated. In(More)
BACKGROUND Polyamines are required for intestinal growth and development. In this study, we examined whether milk can supply the polyamines needed for growth of IEC-6 cells, a line on non-transformed rat intestinal crypt cells. METHODS Human, bovine, and rat milk, and cow's milk-based infant formula were studied. Human, bovine, and rat milk were defatted(More)