Edward Carter

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In this paper, we discuss graph-theoretic approaches to software watermarking and fingerprinting. Software watermarking is used to discourage intellectual property theft and software fingerprinting is used to trace intellectual property copyright violations. We focus on two algorithms that encode information in software through the use of graph structures.(More)
Software watermarking is a tool used to combat software piracy by embedding identifying information into a program. Most existing proposals for software watermarking have the shortcoming that the mark can be destroyed via fairly straightforward semantics-preserving code transformations. This paper introduces path-based watermarking, a new approach to(More)
This paper presents an implementation of the novel watermarking method proposed by Venkatesan, Vazirani, and Sinha in their recent paper A Graph Theoretic Approach to Software Watermarking. An executable program is marked by the addition of code for which the topology of the control-flow graph encodes a watermark. We discuss issues that were identified(More)
Productive replication of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in brain macrophages and microglia is a critical component of viral neuropathogenesis. However, how virus-macrophage interactions lead to neurological disease remains incompletely understood. Possibly, a differential ability of virus to replicate in brain tissue macrophages versus(More)
We studied the effects of acute and chronic ethanol feeding on hepatic regeneration in rats after partial hepatectomy and toxic liver injury produced by D-galactosamine. Ethanol, when administered as a single dose (6 g/kg), inhibited 3H-thymidine incorporation into hepatic DNA; this effect depended in part on the time of ethanol feeding after partial(More)
Macrophages were isolated from the mammary glands of non-lactating (dry) cows and their ability to phagocytose and kill staphylococci in vitro assessed. Normal bovine serum enhanced the uptake of staphylococci and was required for optimal killing in the bactericidal test. Dry gland secretion interfered with uptake. Secretions taken progressively into the(More)
The advancement of positron emission tomography (PET) depends on the development of new radiotracers that will complement (18)F-FDG. Copper-64 ((64)Cu) is a promising PET radionuclide, particularly for antibody-targeted imaging, but the high in vivo lability of conventional chelates has limited its clinical application. The objective of this work was to(More)
UNLABELLED (18)F-FDG and (18)F-FDG-labeled white blood cells ((18)F-FDG-WBCs) are valuable radiopharmaceuticals for imaging focal sites of inflammation and infection. In the present study, the imaging properties of both radiotracers were compared in sterile and septic inflammation models. METHODS Groups of adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (100-120 g) were(More)
We have studied a short term effect (96 hr) of ethanol on hormone-stimulated DNA synthesis in a primary rat hepatocyte culture system. Studies were also performed with respect to total RNA and protein synthesis as well as albumin secretion measured by a solid-phase radioimmunoassay. We found that ethanol, when added to cultured hepatocytes, resulted in a(More)