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Software watermarking is a tool used to combat software piracy by embedding identifying information into a program. Most existing proposals for software watermarking have the shortcoming that the mark can be destroyed via fairly straightforward semantics-preserving code transformations. This paper introduces path-based watermarking, a new approach to(More)
Productive replication of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in brain macrophages and microglia is a critical component of viral neuropathogenesis. However, how virus-macrophage interactions lead to neurological disease remains incompletely understood. Possibly, a differential ability of virus to replicate in brain tissue macrophages versus(More)
This paper presents an implementation of the novel water-marking method proposed by Venkatesan, Vazirani, and Sinha in their recent paper A Graph Theoretic Approach to Software Watermarking. An executable program is marked by the addition of code for which the topology of the control-flow graph encodes a watermark. We discuss issues that were identified(More)
In this paper, we discuss graph-theoretic approaches to software watermarking and fingerprinting. Software watermarking is used to discourage intellectual property theft and software fingerprinting is used to trace intellectual property copyright violations. We focus on two algorithms that encode information in software through the use of graph structures.(More)
We have studied a short term effect (96 hr) of ethanol on hormone-stimulated DNA synthesis in a primary rat hepatocyte culture system. Studies were also performed with respect to total RNA and protein synthesis as well as albumin secretion measured by a solid-phase radioimmunoassay. We found that ethanol, when added to cultured hepatocytes, resulted in a(More)
BACKGROUND Polyamines are required for intestinal growth and development. In this study, we examined whether milk can supply the polyamines needed for growth of IEC-6 cells, a line on non-transformed rat intestinal crypt cells. METHODS Human, bovine, and rat milk, and cow's milk-based infant formula were studied. Human, bovine, and rat milk were defatted(More)
The advancement of positron emission tomography (PET) depends on the development of new radiotracers that will complement (18)F-FDG. Copper-64 ((64)Cu) is a promising PET radionuclide, particularly for antibody-targeted imaging, but the high in vivo lability of conventional chelates has limited its clinical application. The objective of this work was to(More)
Modulation of the immune system may be a viable alternative in the treatment of fulminant hepatic failure (FHF) and can potentially eliminate the need for donor hepatocytes for cellular therapies. Multipotent bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been shown to inhibit the function of various immune cells by undefined paracrine mediators in(More)
The mechanism by which alcohol injures the pancreas remains unknown. Recent investigations suggest a role for fatty acid ethyl ester (FAEE), a nonoxidative metabolite of ethanol, in the pathogenesis of alcohol pancreatitis. In this study, we characterized ethanol-induced injury in rats and evaluated the contribution of oxidative and nonoxidative ethanol(More)
BACKGROUND Cytokines are putative mediators of thermal injury-induced systemic changes. We studied the effects of thermal injury on cytokine activation in vivo with a sensitive radioimmunoassay specific for rat interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1 alpha). METHODS We characterized the organ distribution and expression kinetics of IL-1 alpha in rats submitted to(More)