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Positive behavior support (PBS) is an applied science that uses educational and systems change methods (environmental redesign) to enhance quality of life and minimize problem behavior. PBS initially evolved within the field of developmental disabilities and emerged from three major sources: applied behavior analysis, the normalization/inclusion movement,(More)
It is generally agreed that serious misbehavior in children should be replaced with socially appropriate behaviors, but few guidelines exist with respect to choosing replacement behaviors. We address this issue in two experiments. In Experiment 1, we developed an assessment method for identifying situations in which behavior problems, including aggression,(More)
The literature on self-injurious behavior suggests five major hypotheses concerning the motivation of such behavior: (a) self-injurious behavior is a learned operant, maintained by positive social reinforcement (positive reinforcement hypothesis); (b) self-injurious behavior is a learned operant, maintained by the termination of an aversive stimulus(More)
There has been growing interest in teaching sign language to autistic children who have failed to develop speech. However, controlled experimentation in this area is nonexistent. In the present study, four nonverbal autistic children were taught expressive sign labels for common objects, using a training procedure that consisted of prompting, fading, and(More)
Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are common and clinically heterogeneous neurodevelopmental disorders. Gastrointestinal disorders and associated symptoms are commonly reported in individuals with ASDs, but key issues such as the prevalence and best treatment of these conditions are incompletely understood. A central difficulty in recognizing and(More)
The effects of problem behavior displayed by two groups of children with developmental disabilities was investigated. One group of children exhibited problem behavior under conditions of low adult attention and was referred to as the attention-seeking or AS behavior profile group. A second group of children exhibited problem behavior under conditions of(More)
Studies concerning the functional analysis of severe problem behaviors have suggested that it is important to identify the different categories of stimuli that control problem behavior because each has unique treatment implications. The present study explored the differential effects of adult attention on the severe problem behaviors of two groups of(More)
A three-level model was used to explain the emergence and maintenance of rhythmic stereotypy and self-injury. Level I represents rhythmic behaviors as internally regulated and common in normally developing infants, but delayed in onset among children with handicapping conditions. Consistent with homeostasis theory, Level II considers stereotypy and(More)
Joint attention refers to an early developing set of behaviors that plays a critical role in both social and language development and is specifically impaired in children with autism. In a series of three studies, preschool teachers demonstrated the effectiveness of discrete trial instruction and pivotal response training strategies to teach joint attention(More)
It is generally agreed that serious misbehavior in children should be replaced with socially appropriate behaviors, but few guidelines exist with respect to choosing replacement behaviors. We address this issue in two experiments. In Experiment 1, we developed an assessment method for identifying situations in which behavior problems, induding aggression,(More)