Edward Cannon Ledford

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BACKGROUND Comprehensive tobacco advertising/promotion bans are effective against adolescent smoking but many developing countries have implemented only partial bans. This study examines the association between advertising/promotions exposure and adolescent cigarette smoking risk in North Africa, and possible mediation of this association by parent and peer(More)
BACKGROUND The relationship between mental health status and smoking is complicated and often confounded by bi-directionality, yet most research on this relationship assumes exogeneity. OBJECTIVES The goal of this article is to implement an instrumental variable approach to (1) test the exogeneity assumption and (2) report on the association between(More)
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