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Video-based sensor networks can provide important visual information in a number of applications including: environmental monitoring, health care, emergency response, and video security. This article describes the Panoptes video-based sensor networking architecture, including its design, implementation, and performance. We describe two video sensor(More)
Client puzzles have been proposed in a number of protocols as a mechanism for mitigating the effects of distributed denial of service (DDoS) attacks. In order to provide protection against simultaneous attacks across a wide range of applications and protocols, however, such puzzles must be placed at a layer common to all of them; the network layer. Placing(More)
A set of freely available, universal speech tools is needed to accelerate progress in the speech technology. The CSLU Toolkit represents an effort to make the core technology and fundamental infrastructure accessible, affordable and easy to use. The CSLU Toolkit has been under development for five years. This paper describes recent improvements, additions(More)
We describe an approach to 3D multimodal interaction in immersive augmented and virtual reality environments that accounts for the uncertain nature of the information sources. The resulting multimodal system fuses symbolic and statistical information from a set of 3D gesture, spoken language, and referential agents. The referential agents employ visible or(More)
The natural language processing component of a speech understanding system is commonly a robust, semantic parser, implemented as either a chart-based transition network, or as a generalized left-right (GLR) parser. In contrast, we are developing a robust, semantic parser that is a single, predictive finite-state machine. Our approach is motivated by our(More)
We present a video demonstration of an agent-based test bed application for ongoing research into multi-user, multimodal, computer-assisted meetings. The system tracks a two person scheduling meeting: one person standing at a touch sensitive whiteboard creating a Gantt chart, while another person looks on in view of a calibrated stereo camera. The stereo(More)
Laboratory and in situ experiments were performed in order to evaluate the role of UV radiation on bacterial activity. Particular attention was given to the determination of the role of UV-A and photosynthetic active radiation (PAR) and different nutrient conditions on the recovery of bacterial activity. Laboratory experiments with nearly natural radiation(More)
Structured dialogue models are currently the only tools for easily building spoken dialogue systems. This approach, however, requires the dialogue designer to completely specify all dialogue behavior between the user and system, including how information is grounded between the user and the system. In this paper, we advocate factoring out the grounding(More)