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Maintenance of a stable internal environment within complex organisms requires specialized cells that sense changes in the extracellular concentration of specific ions (such as Ca2+). Although the molecular nature of such ion sensors is unknown, parathyroid cells possess a cell surface Ca(2+)-sensing mechanism that also recognizes trivalent and polyvalent(More)
During mammalian ontogeny, haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) translocate from the fetal liver to the bone marrow, where haematopoiesis occurs throughout adulthood. Unique features of bone that contribute to a microenvironmental niche for stem cells might include the known high concentration of calcium ions at the HSC-enriched endosteal surface. Cells respond(More)
Polycystic kidney diseases are genetic disorders in which the renal parenchyma is progressively replaced by fluid-filled cysts. Two members of the polycystin family (polycystin-1 and -2) are mutated in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), and polycystin-L is deleted in mice with renal and retinal defects. Polycystins are membrane proteins(More)
We have identified a bis-ethylthiomethyl analog of K-252a, CEP-1347/KT-7515, that promotes neuronal survival in culture and in vivo. The neuronal survival properties of CEP-1347/KT-7515 may be related to its ability to inhibit the activation of c-jun N-terminal kinase, a key kinase in some forms of stress-induced neuronal death and perhaps apoptosis. There(More)
Proteoglycans (PGs) are complex macromolecules of the extracellular matrix (ECM) that have a wide variety of effects on developing and regenerating neurons in vivo and in vitro. One hypothesis regarding the mechanisms of PG regulation of neuronal behavior states that the conformation of PGs may be critical, and thus that ECM- or cell surface-bound PGs may(More)
We demonstrate that mutations in the human Ca(2+)-sensing receptor gene cause familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia (FHH) and neonatal severe hyperparathyroidism (NSHPT), two inherited conditions characterized by altered calcium homeostasis. The Ca(2+)-sensing receptor belongs to the superfamily of seven membrane-spanning G protein-coupled receptors. Three(More)
Gliomas are the most common primary tumours of the central nervous system, with nearly 15,000 diagnosed annually in the United States and a lethality approaching 80% within the first year of glioblastoma diagnosis. The marked induction of angiogenesis in glioblastomas suggests that it is a necessary part of malignant progression; however, the precise(More)
The amyloid-beta peptides (A beta) are produced in excess in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and may contribute to neuronal dysfunction and degeneration. This study provides strong evidence for a novel cellular target for the actions of A beta, the phospholipase C-coupled, extracellular Ca(2+)-sensing receptor (CaR). We demonstrate that A beta(s) produce a(More)
The synaptic cleft may be represented as a very thin disk of extracellular fluid. It is possible that at high stimulation frequencies the interval between pulses would be insufficient for diffusion of Ca2+ from the periphery of the cleft to replace extracellular Ca2+ depleted at the center of the cleft as a result of activation of postsynaptic,(More)