Learn More
The extracellular calcium (Ca(2+)(o))-sensing receptor (CaR) recognizes and responds to (i.e., "senses") Ca(2+)(o) as its principal physiological ligand. In the present studies, we document that the CaR is activated not only by extracellular calcium ions but also by amino acids, establishing its capacity to sense nutrients of two totally different classes.(More)
Several proteins implicated in the pathogenesis of polycystic kidney disease (PKD) localize to cilia. Furthermore, cilia are malformed in mice with PKD with mutations in TgN737Rpw (encoding polaris). It is not known, however, whether ciliary dysfunction occurs or is relevant to cyst formation in PKD. Here, we show that polycystin-1 (PC1) and polycystin-2(More)
Maintenance of a stable internal environment within complex organisms requires specialized cells that sense changes in the extracellular concentration of specific ions (such as Ca2+). Although the molecular nature of such ion sensors is unknown, parathyroid cells possess a cell surface Ca(2+)-sensing mechanism that also recognizes trivalent and polyvalent(More)
Parathyroid cells express a cell surface receptor, coupled to the mobilization of intracellular Ca2+, that is activated by increases in the concentration of extracellular Ca2+ and by a variety of other cations. This "Ca2+ receptor" (CaR) serves as the primary physiological regulator of parathyroid hormone secretion. Alterations in the CaR have been proposed(More)
The cloning of a G protein-coupled extracellular Ca(2+) (Ca(o)(2+))-sensing receptor (CaR) has elucidated the molecular basis for many of the previously recognized effects of Ca(o)(2+) on tissues that maintain systemic Ca(o)(2+) homeostasis, especially parathyroid chief cells and several cells in the kidney. The availability of the cloned CaR enabled the(More)
Gliomas are the most common primary tumours of the central nervous system, with nearly 15,000 diagnosed annually in the United States and a lethality approaching 80% within the first year of glioblastoma diagnosis. The marked induction of angiogenesis in glioblastomas suggests that it is a necessary part of malignant progression; however, the precise(More)
Polycystic kidney diseases are genetic disorders in which the renal parenchyma is progressively replaced by fluid-filled cysts. Two members of the polycystin family (polycystin-1 and -2) are mutated in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), and polycystin-L is deleted in mice with renal and retinal defects. Polycystins are membrane proteins(More)
To determine whether calcium polyvalent cation-sensing receptors (CaRs) are salinity sensors in fish, we used a homology-based cloning strategy to isolate a 4.1-kb cDNA encoding a 1,027-aa dogfish shark (Squalus acanthias) kidney CaR. Expression studies in human embryonic kidney cells reveal that shark kidney senses combinations of Ca(2+), Mg(2+), and Na(+)(More)
Parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion is acutely regulated by the extracellular Ca(2+)-sensing receptor (CaR). Thus, Ca(2+) ions, and to a lesser extent Mg(2+) ions, have been viewed as the principal physiological regulators of PTH secretion. Herein we show that in physiological concentrations, l-amino acids acutely and reversibly activated the extracellular(More)
During mammalian ontogeny, haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) translocate from the fetal liver to the bone marrow, where haematopoiesis occurs throughout adulthood. Unique features of bone that contribute to a microenvironmental niche for stem cells might include the known high concentration of calcium ions at the HSC-enriched endosteal surface. Cells respond(More)