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Mule deer fawns (Odocoileus hemionus) were inoculated orally with a brain homogenate prepared from mule deer with naturally occurring chronic wasting disease (CWD), a prion-induced transmissible spongiform encephalopathy. Fawns were necropsied and examined for PrPres, the abnormal prion protein isoform, at 10, 42, 53, 77, 78 and 80 days post-inoculation(More)
The mechanisms responsible for effective vs. ineffective viral containment are central to immunoprevention and therapies of retroviral infections. Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) infection is unique as a naturally occurring, diametric example of effective vs. ineffective retroviral containment by the host. We developed a sensitive quantitative real-time DNA(More)
Feline leukemia virus is a naturally occurring, contagiously transmitted and oncogenic immunosuppressive retrovirus of cats. The effects of FeLV are paradoxical, causing cytoproliferative and cytosuppressive disease (eg, lymphoma and myeloproliferative disorders vs immunodeficiency and myelosuppressive disorders). In the first few weeks after virus(More)
In most cats exposed to the contagious feline leukemia virus (FeLV), viral replication is contained in target haematopoietic tissues and elicits humoral immunity to FeLV and to the feline oncornavirus-associated cell membrane antigen (FOCMA). Recently, we and others have considered that these ostensibly self-limiting infections might be persistent(More)
We have investigated the neurotropism of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) in naturally and experimentally infected cats. Antibodies to FIV were detected in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of 9 of 10 naturally infected cats, and the virus was cultured from the CSF of 5 of 9 of these cats. After experimental intrathecal or intra-bone-marrow inoculation, FIV(More)
A critical concern in the transmission of prion diseases, including chronic wasting disease (CWD) of cervids, is the potential presence of prions in body fluids. To address this issue directly, we exposed cohorts of CWD-naïve deer to saliva, blood, or urine and feces from CWD-positive deer. We found infectious prions capable of transmitting CWD in saliva(More)
The emergence of chronic wasting disease (CWD) in deer and elk in an increasingly wide geographic area, as well as the interspecies transmission of bovine spongiform encephalopathy to humans in the form of variant Creutzfeldt Jakob disease, have raised concerns about the zoonotic potential of CWD. Because meat consumption is the most likely means of(More)
Accumulated evidence in experimental and natural prion disease systems supports a neural route of infectious prion spread from peripheral sites of entry to the central nervous system. However, little is known about prion trafficking routes in cervids with a naturally occurring prion disease known as chronic wasting disease (CWD). In the brain, the(More)
Chronic wasting disease (CWD) of cervids is associated with conversion of the normal cervid prion protein, PrP(C), to a protease-resistant conformer, PrP(CWD). Here we report the use of both nondenaturing amplification and protein-misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA) to amplify PrP(CWD) in vitro. Normal brains from deer, transgenic mice expressing cervid(More)
Up to 15% of free-ranging mule deer in northeastern Colorado and southeastern Wyoming, USA, are afflicted with a prion disease, or transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE), known as chronic wasting disease (CWD). CWD is similar to a subset of TSEs including scrapie and variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in which the abnormal prion protein isoform,(More)