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Accumulated evidence in experimental and natural prion disease systems supports a neural route of infectious prion spread from peripheral sites of entry to the central nervous system. However, little is known about prion trafficking routes in cervids with a naturally occurring prion disease known as chronic wasting disease (CWD). In the brain, the(More)
A critical concern in the transmission of prion diseases, including chronic wasting disease (CWD) of cervids, is the potential presence of prions in body fluids. To address this issue directly, we exposed cohorts of CWD-naïve deer to saliva, blood, or urine and feces from CWD-positive deer. We found infectious prions capable of transmitting CWD in saliva(More)
Key to understanding the epidemiology and pathogenesis of prion diseases, including chronic wasting disease (CWD) of cervids, is determining the mode of transmission from one individual to another. We have previously reported that saliva and blood from CWD-infected deer contain sufficient infectious prions to transmit disease upon passage into naïve deer.(More)
Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a prion disease affecting captive and free-ranging cervids (e.g. deer, elk, and moose). The mechanisms of CWD transmission are poorly understood, though bodily fluids are thought to play an important role. Here we report the presence of infectious prions in the urine and saliva of deer with chronic wasting disease (CWD).(More)
A replication-defective variant of feline leukemia virus was molecularly cloned directly from infected tissue and found to induce a rapid and fatal immunodeficiency syndrome in cats. Studies with cloned viruses also showed that subtle mutational changes would convert a minimally pathogenic virus into one that would induce an acute form of immunodeficiency.(More)
The pathophysiological bases of cognitive, motor, and behavioral abnormalities in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) remain largely unknown. To test the possibility that changes in hippocampal neuronal structure may contribute to these neurologic abnormalities, we examined the brains of cats infected with the feline(More)
BACKGROUND Chronic wasting disease (CWD) of cervids is a prion disease distinguished by high levels of transmissibility, wherein bodily fluids and excretions are thought to play an important role. Using cervid bioassay and established CWD detection methods, we have previously identified infectious prions in saliva and blood but not urine or feces of CWD+(More)
Chronic wasting disease (CWD), a prion disease of North American deer, elk and moose, affects both free-ranging and captive cervids. The potential host range for CWD remains uncertain. The susceptibility of the ferret to CWD was examined experimentally by administering infectious brain material by the intracerebral (IC) or oral (PO) route. Between 15 and 20(More)
In most cats exposed to the contagious feline leukemia virus (FeLV), viral replication is contained in target haematopoietic tissues and elicits humoral immunity to FeLV and to the feline oncornavirus-associated cell membrane antigen (FOCMA). Recently, we and others have considered that these ostensibly self-limiting infections might be persistent(More)
Little is known regarding the potential risk posed by aerosolized prions. Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is transmitted horizontally, almost surely by mucosal exposure, and CWD prions are present in saliva and urine of infected animals. However, whether CWD may be transmissible by the aerosol or nasal route is not known. To address this question, FVB mice(More)