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This paper describes an experimental study which relates simultaneous elbow flexor-extensor electromyogram (EMG) amplitude to joint torque. Investigation was limited to the case of isometric, quasi-isotonic (slowly force-varying), nonfatiguing contractions. For each of the flexor and extensor muscle groups, the model relationship between muscle group torque(More)
This paper reviews data acquisition and signal processing issues relative to producing an amplitude estimate of surface EMG. The paper covers two principle areas. First, methods for reducing noise, artefact and interference in recorded EMG are described. Wherever possible noise should be reduced at the source via appropriate skin preparation, and the use of(More)
Previous research showed that whitening the surface electromyogram (EMG) can improve EMG amplitude estimation (where EMG amplitude is defined as the time-varying standard deviation of the EMG). However, conventional whitening via a linear filter seems to fail at low EMG amplitude levels, perhaps due to additive background noise in the measured EMG. This(More)
We investigated the relationship between electrical alternans and cardiac electrical stability in a series of 20 dog experiments and in a pilot clinical study. Electrical alternans was detected in both the QRS complex and the ST-T wave by use of a novel multidimensional spectral technique. The magnitude of the alteration was expressed as the alternating(More)
When the surface electromyogram (EMG) generated from constant-force, constant-angle, nonfatiguing contractions is modeled as a random process, its density is typically assumed to be Gaussian. This assumption leads to root-mean-square (RMS) processing as the maximum likelihood estimator of the EMG amplitude (where EMG amplitude is defined as the standard(More)
  • E A Clancy
  • 1999
Typical electromyogram (EMG) amplitude estimators use a fixed window length for smoothing the amplitude estimate. When the EMG amplitude is dynamic, previous research suggests that varying the smoothing length as a function of time may improve amplitude estimation. This paper develops optimal time-varying selection of the smoothing window length using a(More)
Previous investigators have experimentally demonstrated and/or analytically predicted that temporal whitening of the surface electromyograph (EMG) waveform prior to demodulation improves the EMG amplitude estimate [1]-[6]. However, no systematic study of the influence of various whitening filters upon amplitude estimate performance has been reported. This(More)
Numerous studies have investigated the relationship between surface electromyogram (EMG) and torque exerted about a joint. Most studies have used conventional EMG amplitude (EMGamp) processing, such as rectification followed by low-pass filtering, to pre-process the EMG before relating it to torque. Recently, advanced EMGamp processors that incorporate(More)
Various conventional methods to estimate the mean and median power spectral frequencies, and amplitude of the surface electromyogram during 30-90 min, cyclic, force-varying, constant-posture contractions were cross-compared in an experimental trial. The aim was to determine the most appropriate algorithm implementations and reduce the total number of(More)
—Myoelectric prostheses use the naturally occurring surface electromyogram (EMG) produced by extant muscle tissue to provide amputees control of artificial limbs. Design and testing of these devices is currently performed using function generators or the healthy EMG signal of the tester. However, these methods of testing either do not provide data(More)