Edward A Bayer

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The microbiota of the mammalian intestine depend largely on dietary polysaccharides as energy sources. Most of these polymers are not degradable by the host, but herbivores can derive 70% of their energy intake from microbial breakdown--a classic example of mutualism. Moreover, dietary polysaccharides that reach the human large intestine have a major impact(More)
The structural complexity and rigidity of cellulosic substrates have given rise to a phenomenal diversity of degradative enzymes--the cellulases. Cellulolytic microorganisms produce a wide variety of different catalytic and noncatalytic enzyme modules, which form the cellulases and act synergistically on their substrate. In some microbes, several types of(More)
The crystal structures of a deglycosylated form of the egg-white glycoprotein avidin and of its complex with biotin have been determined to 2.6 and 3.0 A, respectively. The structures reveal the amino acid residues critical for stabilization of the tetrameric assembly and for the exceptionally tight binding of biotin. Each monomer is an eight-stranded(More)
The isolation and biochemical characterization of the extracellular form of a cellulose-binding factor (CBF) from Clostridium thermocellum is described. The CBF was isolated from the culture supernatant by a two-step procedure which included affinity chromatography on cellulose and gel filtration on Sepharose 4B. The isolated CBF was homogeneous as(More)
The discrete multicomponent, multienzyme cellulosome complex of anaerobic cellulolytic bacteria provides enhanced synergistic activity among the different resident enzymes to efficiently hydrolyze intractable cellulosic and hemicellulosic substrates of the plant cell wall. A pivotal noncatalytic subunit called scaffoldin secures the various enzymatic(More)
The cellulosome is a macromolecular machine, whose components interact in a synergistic manner to catalyze the efficient degradation of cellulose. The cellulosome complex is composed of numerous kinds of cellulases and related enzyme subunits, which are assembled into the complex by virtue of a unique type of scaffolding subunit (scaffoldin). Each of the(More)
Greater understanding of the mechanisms contributing to chemical and enzymatic solubilization of plant cell walls is critical for enabling cost-effective industrial conversion of cellulosic biomass to biofuels. Here, we report the use of correlative imaging in real time to assess the impact of pretreatment, as well as the resulting nanometer-scale changes(More)
The adherence of Clostridium thermocellum, a cellulolytic, thermophilic anaerobe, to its insoluble substrate (cellulose) was studied. The adherence phenomenon was determined to be selective for cellulose. The observed adherence was not significantly affected by various parameters, including salts, pH, temperature, detergents, or soluble sugars. A(More)
Cellulosomes are intricate multienzyme systems produced by several cellulolytic bacteria, the first example of which was discovered in the anaerobic thermophilic bacterium, Clostridium thermocellum. Cellulosomes are designed for efficient degradation of plant cell wall polysaccharides, notably cellulose--the most abundant renewable polymer on earth. The(More)
BACKGROUND Ruminococcus flavefaciens is a predominant cellulolytic rumen bacterium, which forms a multi-enzyme cellulosome complex that could play an integral role in the ability of this bacterium to degrade plant cell wall polysaccharides. Identifying the major enzyme types involved in plant cell wall degradation is essential for gaining a better(More)