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The cellulosome is an extracellular supramolecular machine that can efficiently degrade crystalline cellulosic substrates and associated plant cell wall polysaccharides. The cellulosome arrangement can also promote adhesion to the insoluble substrate, thus providing individual microbial cells with a direct competitive advantage in the utilization of the(More)
The structural complexity and rigidity of cellulosic substrates have given rise to a phenomenal diversity of degradative enzymes--the cellulases. Cellulolytic microorganisms produce a wide variety of different catalytic and noncatalytic enzyme modules, which form the cellulases and act synergistically on their substrate. In some microbes, several types of(More)
The cellulosome is a macromolecular machine, whose components interact in a synergistic manner to catalyze the efficient degradation of cellulose. The cellulosome complex is composed of numerous kinds of cellulases and related enzyme subunits, which are assembled into the complex by virtue of a unique type of scaffolding subunit (scaffoldin). Each of the(More)
The family 9 cellulase gene celI of Clostridium thermocellum, was previously cloned, expressed, and characterized (G. P. Hazlewood, K. Davidson, J. I. Laurie, N. S. Huskisson, and H. J. Gilbert, J. Gen. Microbiol. 139:307-316, 1993). We have recloned and sequenced the entire celI gene and found that the published sequence contained a 53-bp deletion that(More)
The microbiota of the mammalian intestine depend largely on dietary polysaccharides as energy sources. Most of these polymers are not degradable by the host, but herbivores can derive 70% of their energy intake from microbial breakdown--a classic example of mutualism. Moreover, dietary polysaccharides that reach the human large intestine have a major impact(More)
The discrete multicomponent, multienzyme cellulosome complex of anaerobic cellulolytic bacteria provides enhanced synergistic activity among the different resident enzymes to efficiently hydrolyze intractable cellulosic and hemicellulosic substrates of the plant cell wall. A pivotal noncatalytic subunit called scaffoldin secures the various enzymatic(More)
The crystal structures of a deglycosylated form of the egg-white glycoprotein avidin and of its complex with biotin have been determined to 2.6 and 3.0 A, respectively. The structures reveal the amino acid residues critical for stabilization of the tetrameric assembly and for the exceptionally tight binding of biotin. Each monomer is an eight-stranded(More)
The cellulosome is a multiprotein complex, produced primarily by anaerobic microorganisms, which functions to degrade lignocellulosic materials. An important topic of current debate is whether cellulosomal systems display greater ability to deconstruct complex biomass materials (e.g. plant cell walls) than nonaggregated enzymes, and in so doing would be(More)
Avidin, a positively charged egg-white protein, aggregates extensively when mixed at ambient temperatures with anionic detergents, such as sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). The resultant aggregates fail to penetrate the stacking gel during polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). To prevent the formation of such aggregates, avidin was acetylated and the pI(More)
The use of thermostable cellulases is advantageous for the breakdown of lignocellulosic biomass toward the commercial production of biofuels. Previously, we have demonstrated the engineering of an enhanced thermostable family 8 cellulosomal endoglucanase (EC 3.2.1.4), Cel8A, from Clostridium thermocellum, using random error-prone PCR and a combination of(More)