Edward A Alexander

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The heightened concern about the intentional release of variola virus has led to the need to develop safer smallpox vaccines. While subunit vaccine strategies are safer than live virus vaccines, subunit vaccines have been hampered by the need for multiple boosts to confer optimal protection. Here we developed a protein-based subunit vaccine strategy that(More)
The renal concentrating ability of Fischer 344 rats was studied at 23 and 4 mo of age. Maximum urine concentration after 40 h of dehydration with or without vasopressin injection was significantly lower (P less than 0.01) in old (2,550 +/- 70 and 2,363 +/- 107 mosmol/kg H2O2, respectively) vs. young (3,242 +/- 50 and 3,162 +/- 50 mosmol/kg H2O,(More)
Inner medullary collecting duct cells were isolated from rat papillae and grown to confluence on cover slips. H+ secretion was estimated by intracellular pH (pHi) changes measured with the fluorescent probe 2,7-biscarboxyethyl-5(6)-carboxyfluorescein. In buffered NaCl, pHi was 7.14 +/- 0.04 (n = 78). After acidification about 40% of monolayers exhibited(More)
The inner medullary collecting duct (IMCD) of the rat is a major site of acidification. However, previous micropuncture studies have failed to demonstrate acidification along the terminal IMCD during chronic acid feeding. To more completely evaluate this question we used the microcatheterization method in rats fed ammonium chloride for 3-7 days. Arterial pH(More)
The Na+-H+ antiporter regulates both H+ secretion and cell pH in renal epithelia. The present study was designed to further define the Na+ dependency and kinetics of proton efflux in MDCK cells. Intracellular pH (pHi) was determined with a pH-sensitive fluorescent probe, 2,7-bis-carboxyethyl-5,6-carboxyfluorescein (BCECF). Data were obtained from confluent(More)
In this study we investigated the interrelationship between cell pH (pHi) and cell calcium (Cai) in cultured inner medullary collecting duct cells of the rat. Confluent monolayers were made quiescent by incubation for 24 h in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium supplemented with 0.1% serum before study. Changes in pHi and Cai were measured with the(More)
Since previous work using a nonreplicating adenovirus-expressing mouse interferon-β (Ad.mIFNβ) showed promising preclinical activity, we postulated that a vector-expressing IFNβ at high levels that could also replicate would be even more beneficial. Accordingly a replication competent, recombinant vaccinia viral vector-expressing mIFNβ (VV.mIFNβ) was(More)
The trafficking of H+-ATPase vesicles to the apical membrane of inner medullary collecting duct (IMCD) cells utilizes a mechanism similar to that described in neurosecretory cells involving soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein target receptor (SNARE) proteins. Regulated exocytosis of these vesicles is associated with the formation of(More)
Changes in cytosolic calcium concentration (Cai2+) have been implicated in the regulation of intracellular pH (pHi) in several cell types. In the present study we investigated the mechanism by which an increase in Cai2+ stimulates H+ secretion and a rise in pHi in cultured rat inner medullary collecting duct (IMCD) cells. Confluent monolayers were made(More)
The effect of acute respiratory acidosis (ARA) on inner medullary collecting duct (IMCD) acidification was studied and the results were compared with previously obtained data by our laboratory in rats with acute metabolic acidosis (AMA). We employed the microcatheterization technique to directly measure pH and PCO2 with glass-membrane electrodes, and fluid(More)