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The heightened concern about the intentional release of variola virus has led to the need to develop safer smallpox vaccines. While subunit vaccine strategies are safer than live virus vaccines, subunit vaccines have been hampered by the need for multiple boosts to confer optimal protection. Here we developed a protein-based subunit vaccine strategy that(More)
Many bacteria respond to changes in environmental conditions by entering the viable-but-nonculturable state. We have determined that copper can induce nutrient-starved Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Rhizobium leguminosarum cells to become viable but nonculturable. This is the first report of a chemical inducer of this condition.
The Na+-H+ antiporter regulates both H+ secretion and cell pH in renal epithelia. The present study was designed to further define the Na+ dependency and kinetics of proton efflux in MDCK cells. Intracellular pH (pHi) was determined with a pH-sensitive fluorescent probe, 2,7-bis-carboxyethyl-5,6-carboxyfluorescein (BCECF). Data were obtained from confluent(More)
Inner medullary collecting duct cells were isolated from rat papillae and grown to confluence on cover slips. H+ secretion was estimated by intracellular pH (pHi) changes measured with the fluorescent probe 2,7-biscarboxyethyl-5(6)-carboxyfluorescein. In buffered NaCl, pHi was 7.14 +/- 0.04 (n = 78). After acidification about 40% of monolayers exhibited(More)
A modification of the microdissection technique of Hanssen was utilized in dogs to measure superficial (SNGFR) and juxtamedullary nephron filtration rate (JMGFR) in control and saline-expanded dogs. During control studies SNGFR was 60+/-4 and JMGFR was 72+/-5 nl/min. During saline loading SNGFR was 74+/-8 and JMGFR was 65+/-6 nl/min. The ratio SNGFR: JMGFR(More)
The question of phosphate transport along the collecting duct remains controversial inasmuch as no data from direct in vivo evaluation of this nephron segment have been reported. We measured net phosphate transport along the inner medullary collecting duct (IMCD) using the collecting duct microcatheterization technique in five groups of rats. In control(More)
Rats fed a diet high in potassium for several days survive an acute load of potassium that is lethal to animals on a regular diet. Previous data suggested that this survival occurred because of enhanced kaluresis. Although increased urinary excretion may occur, the major mechanism of this potassium adaptation phenomenon has been found to be extrarenal.(More)
The effect of volume expansion on inner medullary collecting duct (IMCD) sodium transport remains controversial. Studies employing micropuncture of the IMCD base and tip were interpreted to demonstrate enhanced sodium and chloride reabsorption. Data obtained by microcatheterization evaluating only sodium transport revealed either no reabsorption or net(More)
To directly characterize acidification by the collecting duct, we developed pH and PCO2 microelectrodes suitable for microcatheterization of the inner medullary collecting duct (IMCD). In saline-infused control rats apparent in situ pH fell significantly along the IMCD, from 5.95 at 60% length to 5.49 at the papilla tip. Luminal PCO2 averaged 34 +/- 1 mmHg(More)