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Many bacteria respond to changes in environmental conditions by entering the viable-but-nonculturable state. We have determined that copper can induce nutrient-starved Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Rhizobium leguminosarum cells to become viable but nonculturable. This is the first report of a chemical inducer of this condition.
To directly characterize acidification by the collecting duct, we developed pH and PCO2 microelectrodes suitable for microcatheterization of the inner medullary collecting duct (IMCD). In saline-infused control rats apparent in situ pH fell significantly along the IMCD, from 5.95 at 60% length to 5.49 at the papilla tip. Luminal PCO2 averaged 34 +/- 1 mmHg(More)
Rats fed a diet high in potassium for several days survive an acute load of potassium that is lethal to animals on a regular diet. Previous data suggested that this survival occurred because of enhanced kaluresis. Although increased urinary excretion may occur, the major mechanism of this potassium adaptation phenomenon has been found to be extrarenal.(More)
Acidic electrolyzed water (AC-EW) has strong bactericidal activity against foodborne pathogens on fresh vegetables. However, the efficacy of AC-EW is influenced by soil or other organic materials present. This study examined the bactericidal activity of AC-EW in the presence of organic matter, in the form of bovine serum against foodborne pathogens on the(More)
Recycling of H(+)-ATPase to the apical plasma membrane, mediated by vesicular exocytosis and endocytosis, is an important mechanism for controlling H(+) secretion by the collecting duct. We hypothesized that SNAREs (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment proteins) may be involved in the targeting of H(+)-ATPase-coated vesicles. Using a tissue(More)
The inner medullary collecting duct (IMCD) of the rat is a major site of acidification. However, previous micropuncture studies have failed to demonstrate acidification along the terminal IMCD during chronic acid feeding. To more completely evaluate this question we used the microcatheterization method in rats fed ammonium chloride for 3-7 days. Arterial pH(More)
In this study we defined some of the important elements in the acidification process of rat inner medullary collecting duct (IMCD) cells in culture. After cell acidification, i.e., cell pH (pHi) = 6.51 +/- 0.02, pHi increased 0.046 +/- 0.003 units/min. N-ethylmaleimide, N,N'-cyclohexylcarbodiimide, and bafilomycin reduced this rate by over 85%. In contrast,(More)
Renal epithelial cell H+ secretion is an exocytic-endocytic phenomenon. In the inner medullary collecting duct (IMCD) cell line, which we have utilized as a model of renal epithelial cell acid secretion, we found previously that acidification increased exocytosis and alkalinization increased endocytosis. It is likely, therefore, that the rate of proton(More)
It is generally assumed that at least part of distal acidification occurs along the collecting duct. Complete and direct evaluation of acidification along this nephron segment is unavailable, however. The purpose of these experiments was to quantify the net acidification rate along the inner medullary collecting duct (IMCD) and to measure the effect of(More)
The purpose of this study was to quantitate sodium balance during gestation in the rat (3 wk) to determine the time course of salt retention and to define the distribution of the retained salt. We have found that while sodium retention appears to begin during the 2nd wk, the bulk of retention occurs during the 3rd wk when the rat excretes only 67% of that(More)