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The ability to find one's way depends on neural algorithms that integrate information about place, distance and direction, but the implementation of these operations in cortical microcircuits is poorly understood. Here we show that the dorsocaudal medial entorhinal cortex (dMEC) contains a directionally oriented, topographically organized neural map of the(More)
Grid cells in the medial entorhinal cortex (MEC) are part of an environment-independent spatial coordinate system. To determine how information about location, direction, and distance is integrated in the grid-cell network, we recorded from each principal cell layer of MEC in rats that explored two-dimensional environments. Whereas layer II was predominated(More)
The hippocampal formation can encode relative spatial location, without reference to external cues, by the integration of linear and angular self-motion (path integration). Theoretical studies, in conjunction with recent empirical discoveries, suggest that the medial entorhinal cortex (MEC) might perform some of the essential underlying computations by(More)
Theoretical models have long pointed to the dentate gyrus as a possible source of neuronal pattern separation. In agreement with predictions from these models, we show that minimal changes in the shape of the environment in which rats are exploring can substantially alter correlated activity patterns among place-modulated granule cells in the dentate gyrus.(More)
Gamma oscillations are thought to transiently link distributed cell assemblies that are processing related information, a function that is probably important for network processes such as perception, attentional selection and memory. This 'binding' mechanism requires that spatially distributed cells fire together with millisecond range precision; however,(More)
Theta-phase precession in hippocampal place cells is one of the best-studied experimental models of temporal coding in the brain. Theta-phase precession is a change in spike timing in which the place cell fires at progressively earlier phases of the extracellular theta rhythm as the animal crosses the spatially restricted firing field of the neuron. Within(More)
The medial entorhinal cortex (MEC) is part of the brain's circuit for dynamic representation of self-location. The metric of this representation is provided by grid cells, cells with spatial firing fields that tile environments in a periodic hexagonal pattern. Limited anatomical sampling has obscured whether the grid system operates as a unified system or a(More)
As the interface between hippocampus and neocortex, the entorhinal cortex is likely to play a pivotal role in memory. To determine how information is represented in this area, we measured spatial modulation of neural activity in layers of medial entorhinal cortex projecting to the hippocampus. Close to the postrhinal-entorhinal border, entorhinal neurons(More)
Hippocampal neurons were recorded under conditions in which the recording chamber was varied but its location remained unchanged versus conditions in which an identical chamber was encountered in different places. Two forms of neuronal pattern separation occurred. In the variable cue-constant place condition, the firing rates of active cells varied, often(More)