Edurado Blumwald

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Agricultural productivity is severely affected by soil salinity. One possible mechanism by which plants could survive salt stress is to compartmentalize sodium ions away from the cytosol. Overexpression of a vacuolar Na+/H+ antiport from Arabidopsis thaliana in Arabidopsis plants promotes sustained growth and development in soil watered with up to 200(More)
Salinity limits plant growth and impairs agricultural productivity. There is a wide spectrum of plant responses to salinity that are defined by a range of adaptations at the cellular and the whole-plant levels, however, the mechanisms of sodium transport appear to be fundamentally similar. At the cellular level, sodium ions gain entry via several plasma(More)
The ability of plant cells to maintain low cytosolic sodium concentrations is an essential process associated with the ability of plants to grow in high salt concentrations. Recent results have identified pathways for Na(+) entry, and the cloning of vacuolar Na(+)/H(+) antiporters has demonstrated the role of intracellular Na(+) compartmentation in plant(More)
Free calcium (Ca(2+)) in the cytoplasm of plant cells is important for the regulation of many cellular processes and the transduction of stimuli. Control of cytoplasmic Ca(2+) involves the activity of pumps, carriers, and possibly ion channels. The patch-clamp technique was used to study Ca(2+) channels in the vacuole of sugar beet cells. Vacuolar currents(More)
The pH-dependent fluorescence quenching of acridine orange was used to study the Na(+)- and K(+)-dependent H(+) fluxes in tonoplast vesicles isolated from storage tissue of red beet and sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.). The Na(+)-dependent H(+) flux across the tonoplast membrane could be resolved into two components: (a) a membrane potential-mediated flux(More)
Cell suspension cultures of sugar beet were grown at various salinities (0-200 millimolar NaCl). Their tolerance to Na(+) was comparable to that of the intact plant. Tonoplast vesicles were prepared by sucrose density gradient centrifugation of microsomal membranes and shown to be highly purified. The vesicles were subjected to a pH jump in the presence of(More)
Patch-clamp techniques were employed to study the electrical properties of vacuoles from sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) cell suspensions at physiological concentrations of cytoplasmic Ca(2+). Vacuoles exposed to K(+) malate revealed the activation of instantaneous and time-dependent outward currents by positive membrane potentials. Negative potentials induced(More)
An improved method is described for the isolation of membrane envelope enclosing the bacteroids (peribacteroid membrane) from soybean (Glycine max L.) root nodules. The ATPase activity of the peribacteroid membrane from infected roots is compared with that of the plasma membrane from uninfected roots. The two ATPases are similar in terms of their vanadate(More)
The fluorescent probes acridine orange and oxonol-V were used as indicators of pH gradients (DeltapH) and membrane potential differences (DeltaPsi), respectively, in membrane vesicles believed to be derived from the tonoplast of Beta vulgaris L. Low concentrations of nitrate (1-5 mM) caused a partial dissipation of both DeltapH and DeltaPsi at vesicle(More)