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OBJECTIVE The prevalence of smoking is significantly increased among adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), and this association has a significant impact in both disorders, ascribed to either self-medication or behavioral disinhibition hypotheses. However, little is known about clinical variables associated with cigarette smoking among(More)
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) affects approximately 5 % of school-aged children and 2.5 % of adults. Genetic studies in ADHD have pointed to genes in different neurobiological systems, with relatively small individual effects. The mineralocorticoid receptor is the main receptor involved in the initial triggering of stress response.(More)
OBJECTIVE The requirement in classificatory systems that some impairment from attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms starts before 7 years of age (age of onset of impairment criteria - AOC) has been harshly criticized. Although there is evidence that late-onset ADHD is a valid diagnosis, little is known about the role of age of onset of(More)
Adrenergic α2A receptor gene (ADRA2A) is one of the most promising candidate genes for ADHD pharmacogenetics. Thus far, three studies have investigated the association between the ADRA2A -1291 C>G polymorphism and the therapeutic response to methylphenidate (MPH) in children with ADHD, all of them with positive results. The aim of this study is to(More)
Although the identification of reliable predictors of methylphenidate response in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is necessary to guide treatment decisions, very few data exist on this issue. Here, we assessed the predictors of clinical response to immediate-release methylphenidate hydrochloride (IR-MPH) in a naturalistic setting(More)
The dopamine transporter (SLC6A3/DAT1) plays a key role in the regulation of dopaminergic neurotransmission and is the major site of action for methylphenidate, a first-line medication for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Most genetic association studies with ADHD have investigated a 40-bp variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR)(More)
OBJECTIVE This study addresses if deficits in cognitive, attention, and inhibitory control performance in adults with ADHD are better explained by the disorder itself or by comorbid conditions. METHOD Adult patients with ADHD (n = 352) and controls (n = 94) were evaluated in the ADHD program of a tertiary hospital. The diagnostic process for ADHD and(More)
Dysfunctions of the dopaminergic system have been implicated on the etiology of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Meta-analyses addressing the association of the dopamine receptor D2 (DRD2) gene and ADHD were inconclusive due to excessive heterogeneity across studies. Both the great phenotypic heterogeneity of ADHD and the complexity of the(More)