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The notion of mimicking natural structures in the synthesis of new structural materials has generated enormous interest but has yielded few practical advances. Natural composites achieve strength and toughness through complex hierarchical designs that are extremely difficult to replicate synthetically. We emulate nature's toughening mechanisms by combining(More)
Although extensive efforts have been put into the development of porous scaffolds for bone regeneration, with encouraging results, all porous materials have a common limitation: the inherent lack of strength associated with porosity. Hence, the development of porous hydroxyapatite scaffolds has been hindered to non-load bearing applications. We report here(More)
Materials that are strong, ultralightweight, and tough are in demand for a range of applications, requiring architectures and components carefully designed from the micrometer down to the nanometer scale. Nacre, a structure found in many molluscan shells, and bone are frequently used as examples for how nature achieves this through hybrid organic-inorganic(More)
The repair and regeneration of large bone defects resulting from disease or trauma remains a significant clinical challenge. Bioactive glass has appealing characteristics as a scaffold material for bone tissue engineering, but the application of glass scaffolds for the repair of load-bearing bone defects is often limited by their low mechanical strength and(More)
The in vitro response in simulated body fluid (SBF) of silicate glass coatings on Ti6A14V was evaluated. Glasses belonging to the SiO2-CaO-MgO-Na2O-K2O-P2O5 system were used to prepare 50-70 m thick coatings on Ti6Al4V, employing a simple enameling technique. Glasses with silica content higher than 55 wt% can be used to prepare coatings that do not crack or(More)
Natural structural materials are built at ambient temperature from a fairly limited selection of components. They usually comprise hard and soft phases arranged in complex hierarchical architectures, with characteristic dimensions spanning from the nanoscale to the macroscale. The resulting materials are lightweight and often display unique combinations of(More)
As a first step toward the design and fabrication of biomimetic bonelike composite materials, we have developed a template-driven nucleation and mineral growth process for the high-affinity integration of hydroxyapatite with a poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (pHEMA) hydrogel scaffold. A mineralization technique was developed that exposes carboxylate(More)
This study resulted in enhanced collagen type 1 and osteocalcin expression in human periodontal ligament fibroblasts (hPDLF) when exposed to bioactive glass conditioned media that subsequently may promote early mineralized tissue development. Commercial Bioglass™ (45S5) and experimental bioactive coating glass (6P53-b), were used to make a glass conditioned(More)
The development of materials to support bone regeneration requires flexible fabrication technologies able to tailor chemistry and architecture for specific applications. In this work we describe the preparation of ceramic-based inks for robotic-assisted deposition (robocasting) using Pluronic F-127 solutions. This approach allows the preparation of(More)
beta-Tricalcium phosphate (beta-TCP) scaffolds with designed, three-dimensional (3-D) geometry and mesoscale porosity have been fabricated by direct-write assembly (robocasting) techniques. Concentrated beta-TCP inks with suitable viscoelastic properties were developed to enable the fabrication of the complex 3-D structures. A comprehensive study of the(More)