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Materials that are strong, ultralightweight, and tough are in demand for a range of applications, requiring architectures and components carefully designed from the micrometer down to the nanometer scale. Nacre, a structure found in many molluscan shells, and bone are frequently used as examples for how nature achieves this through hybrid organic-inorganic(More)
As a first step toward the design and fabrication of biomimetic bonelike composite materials, we have developed a template-driven nucleation and mineral growth process for the high-affinity integration of hydroxyapatite with a poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (pHEMA) hydrogel scaffold. A mineralization technique was developed that exposes carboxylate(More)
Although extensive efforts have been put into the development of porous scaffolds for bone regeneration, with encouraging results, all porous materials have a common limitation: the inherent lack of strength associated with porosity. Hence, the development of porous hydroxyapatite scaffolds has been hindered to non-load bearing applications. We report here(More)
The notion of replicating the unique fracture resistance of natural composites in synthetic materials has generated much interest but has yielded few real technological advances. Here we demonstrate how using ice-templated structures, the concept of hierarchical design can be applied to conventional compounds such as alumina and poly(methyl methacrylate)(More)
The synthesis of wafer-scale single crystal graphene remains a challenge toward the utilization of its intrinsic properties in electronics. Until now, the large-area chemical vapor deposition of graphene has yielded a polycrystalline material, where grain boundaries are detrimental to its electrical properties. Here, we study the physicochemical mechanisms(More)
The prospect of extending natural biological design to develop new synthetic ceramic-metal composite materials is examined. Using ice-templating of ceramic suspensions and subsequent metal infiltration, we demonstrate that the concept of ordered hierarchical design can be applied to create fine-scale laminated ceramic-metal (bulk) composites that are(More)
The widespread technological introduction of graphene beyond electronics rests on our ability to assemble this two-dimensional building block into three-dimensional structures for practical devices. To achieve this goal we need fabrication approaches that are able to provide an accurate control of chemistry and architecture from nano to macroscopic levels.(More)
This paper introduces our approach to modeling the mechanical behavior of cellular ceramics, through the example of calcium phosphate scaffolds made by robocasting for bone-tissue engineering. The Weibull theory is used to deal with the scaffolds' constitutive rods statistical failure, and the Sanchez-Palencia theory of periodic homogenization is used to(More)
The development of wafer-scale continuous single-crystal graphene layers is key in view of its prospective applications. To this end, in this paper, we pave the way towards a graphene growth model in the framework of the Langmuir adsorption theory and two-dimensional crystallization. In particular, we model the nucleation and growth of graphene on copper(More)