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Mutational alteration of the BLM3 gene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae confers hypersensitivities to lethal effects of ionizing radiation, anticancer bleomycins and structurally-related phleomycins. Bleomycin is used clinically in the treatment of many types of cancers, including Kaposi's sarcoma. The BLM3 gene was cloned from a genomic library by complementing(More)
HIV-1 cell-to-cell transmission confers a strong advantage as it increases efficiency of transfer up to 100-fold compared with a cell-free route. Mechanisms of HIV-1 cell-to-cell transmission are still unclear and can in part be explained by the presence of actin-containing cellular protrusions. Such protrusions have been shown to facilitate cell-to-cell(More)
Dendritic cells (DCs) in mucosal surfaces are early targets for human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1). DCs mount rapid and robust immune responses upon pathogen encounter. However, immune response in the early events of HIV-1 transmission appears limited, suggesting that HIV-1 evade early immune control by DCs. We report that HIV-1 induces a rapid shutdown(More)
Already at initial phases of infection, HIV is coated with complement fragments. During the chronic phase, when HIV-specific IgGs appear, the virus circulates immune complexed with IgG and complement. Thus, we studied the interaction of dendritic cells (DCs) and DC-T cell cocultures with complement (C)-opsonized and C-IgG-opsonized HIV. HIV infection of(More)
Dendritic cells (DCs) are essential components of the early events of HIV infection. Here, we characterized the trafficking pathways that HIV-1 follows during its capture by DCs and its subsequent presentation to CD4(+) T cells via an infectious synapse. Immunofluorescence microscopy indicates that the virus-containing compartment in mature DCs (mDCs)(More)
Dendritic cells (DCs) are essential for the early events of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Model systems of HIV sexual transmission have shown that DCs expressing the DC-specific C-type lectin DC-SIGN capture and internalize HIV at mucosal surfaces and efficiently transfer HIV to CD4+ T cells in lymph nodes, where viral replication occurs.(More)
The genomic and antigenomic 3'-end replication promoters of Sendai virus are bipartite in nature and symmetrical, composed of le or tr sequences; a gene start or gene end site, respectively; and a simple hexameric repeat. The relative strengths of these 3'-end promoters determines the ratios of genomes and antigenomes formed during infection and whether(More)
Dendritic cells (DC) are crucial components of the early events of HIV infection. Dendritic cells capture and internalize HIV at mucosal surfaces and efficiently transfer the virus to CD4+ T cells in trans through infectious synapses (trans-infection pathway). Alternatively, HIV-1 replicates in DC (R5-HIV-1) (cis-infection pathway). Here, we analyzed HIV(More)
In the early events of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection, immature dendritic cells (DCs) expressing the DC-specific intercellular adhesion molecule 3-grabbing nonintegrin (DC-SIGN) receptor capture small amounts of HIV-1 on mucosal surfaces and spread viral infection to CD4(+) T cells in lymph nodes (22, 34, 45). RNA interference has(More)
The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is an enveloped retrovirus that undergoes assembly at specific sites in infected cells. In macrophages, at least, this assembly occurs primarily on a subset of endocytic organelles that contain some of the markers found in late endosomes or multivesicular bodies (MVBs), in particular CD63. The budding of virus(More)