Eduardo S A Santos

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Meta-analysis has changed the way researchers conduct literature reviews not only in medical and social sciences but also in biological sciences. Meta-analysis in biological sciences, especially in ecology and evolution (which we refer to as ‘biological’ meta-analysis) faces somewhat different methodological problems from its counterparts in medical and(More)
A fundamental premise of life-history theory is that organisms that increase current reproductive investment suffer increased mortality. Possibly the most studied life-history phenotypic relationship is the trade-off between parental effort and survival. However, evidence supporting this trade-off is equivocal. Here, we conducted a meta-analysis to test the(More)
In general, leaf wetness duration (LWD) is a key parameter influencing plant disease epidemiology, since it provides the free water required by pathogens to infect foliar tissue. LWD is used as an input in many disease warning systems, which help growers to decide the best time to spray their crops against diseases. Since there is no observation standard(More)
Species with variable mating systems provide a unique opportunity to investigate whether females receive direct fitness benefits from additional male partners. The direct benefits provide an obvious explanation for why females would breed polyandrously, in a situation where males clearly do not attain their optimal reproductive success. Evidence for these(More)
Meta-analysis is the gold standard for synthesis in ecology and evolution. Together with estimating overall effect magnitudes, meta-analyses estimate differences between effect sizes via heterogeneity statistics. It is widely hypothesized that heterogeneity will be present in ecological/evolutionary meta-analyses due to the system-specific nature of(More)
The intensity of biotic interactions varies around the world, in such a way that mortality risk imposed by natural enemies is usually higher in the tropics. A major role of offspring attendance is protection against natural enemies, so the benefits of this behaviour should be higher in tropical regions. We tested this macroecological prediction with a(More)
Conflict and cooperation within and between the sexes are among the driving forces that lead to the evolution of mating systems. Among mating strategies, female genetic polyandry and male reproductive cooperation pose challenging evolutionary questions regarding the maintenance of systems where one sex suffers from reduced fitness. Here, we investigate the(More)
Species invasions and exotic species introductions can be considered as ‘unplanned experiments’, which help us to understand the evolution of organisms. In this study, we investigated whether an exotic bird species, the dunnock (Prunella modularis), has diverged genetically and morphologically from its native source population (Cambridge, England) after(More)
Leaf gas exchange of terrestrial and epiphytic orchids from the Atlantic Rainforest in northeast Brazil was investigated under artificial growth conditions. The terrestrial orchids showed higher values of all photosynthetic parameters in comparison to epiphytic ones. There was a close relationship between P N and g s for both terrestrial and epiphytic(More)
Many animal taxa that display sexual size dimorphism (SSD) exhibit a positive allometric relationship in which the degree of dimorphism increases with body size. This macroevolutionary pattern is known as Rensch's rule. Although sexual selection is hypothesized to be the main mechanism causing this pattern, body size is influenced by several selective(More)