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Naltrexone (NTX) exhibited approximately 3-fold higher affinity for sites labeled by [3H]U69,593 (putative kappa 1-selective ligand) than [3H]bremazocine (non-selective ligand) in the presence of mu and delta receptor blockade in monkey brain membranes. This led us to test an hypothesis that NTX could display in vivo antagonist selectivity for kappa(More)
The antinociceptive effects of the opioid agonists etonitazene and alfentanil, as well as the agonist/antagonists nalbuphine, [(1)-beta-2'-hydroxy-2,9-dimethyl-5-phenyl-6,7-benzomorphan (GPA 1657)] and profadol were studied in the warm water (48 degrees and 55 degrees C) tail-withdrawal assay in rhesus monkeys. Etonitazene and alfentanil produced(More)
Salvinorin A is a naturally occurring hallucinogen derived from the plant Salvia divinorum. Salvinorin A is also a potent and selective kappa opioid receptor agonist in vitro. It has been shown that kappa agonists decrease dopamine levels in the caudate putamen and nucleus accumbens and cause conditioned place aversion in rodents. To study the effects of(More)
The effects of butorphanol were studied in assays of antinociception, respiratory depression, sedation, diuresis and reinforcing effects in rhesus monkeys, and opioid binding in monkey brain. Butorphanol (0.003-0.1 mg/kg s.c.) was effective in the warm-water tail withdrawal assay in 50 degrees C water but not in 55 degrees C. Over a similar dose range,(More)
Antinociceptive and respiratory effects of nalbuphine and other opioids were studied in rhesus monkeys. In a thermal, tail withdrawal assay, the kappa agonist enadoline and the mu agonists alfentanil and fentanyl produced maximum antinociceptive effects in all subjects and over a wide range of temperatures, whereas nalbuphine produced antinociceptive(More)
Genetic variation may partially underlie complex personality and physiological traits--such as impulsivity, risk taking and stress responsivity--as well as a substantial proportion of vulnerability to addictive diseases. Furthermore, personality and physiological traits themselves may differentially affect the various stages of addiction, defined(More)
Systemic administration of nor-binaltorphimine (nor-BNI) produces a long-lasting kappa-opioid receptor (kappaOR) antagonism and has kappa(1)-selectivity in nonhuman primates. The aim of this study was to establish the pharmacological basis of central kappaOR antagonism in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). After intracisternal (i.c.) administration of small(More)
Capsaicin produces burning pain, followed by nociceptive responses, such as allodynia and hyperalgesia in humans and rodents. In the present study, when administered subcutaneously into the tail of rhesus monkeys, capsaicin (0.01-0.32 mg) dose-dependently produced thermal allodynia manifested as reduced tail-withdrawal latencies in 46 degrees C water, from(More)
The effects of subcutaneously administered nor-binaltorphimine (nor-BNI; 1.0 and 3.2 mg/kg) were examined in the warm-water (50 degrees C and 55 degrees C) tail-withdrawal assay in rhesus monkeys (n = 3). Nor-BNI alone produced variable antinociceptive effects in 50 degrees C water up to 3.5 hr after administration but was completely ineffective against the(More)
Salvinorin A is the active component of the hallucinogenic plant Salvia divinorum. The potential mode of action of this hallucinogen was unknown until recently. A recent in vitro study detected high affinity and efficacy of salvinorin A at κ-opioid receptors. It was postulated that salvinorin A would produce discriminative stimulus effects similar to those(More)