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RATIONALE Salvinorin A is a naturally occurring hallucinogen derived from the plant Salvia divinorum. Salvinorin A is also a potent and selective kappa opioid receptor agonist in vitro. It has been shown that kappa agonists decrease dopamine levels in the caudate putamen and nucleus accumbens and cause conditioned place aversion in rodents. OBJECTIVES To(More)
RATIONALE Salvinorin A is the active component of the hallucinogenic plant Salvia divinorum. The potential mode of action of this hallucinogen was unknown until recently. A recent in vitro study detected high affinity and efficacy of salvinorin A at kappa-opioid receptors. It was postulated that salvinorin A would produce discriminative stimulus effects(More)
Genetic variation may partially underlie complex personality and physiological traits--such as impulsivity, risk taking and stress responsivity--as well as a substantial proportion of vulnerability to addictive diseases. Furthermore, personality and physiological traits themselves may differentially affect the various stages of addiction, defined(More)
Naltrexone (NTX) exhibited approximately 3-fold higher affinity for sites labeled by [3H]U69,593 (putative kappa 1-selective ligand) than [3H]bremazocine (non-selective ligand) in the presence of mu and delta receptor blockade in monkey brain membranes. This led us to test an hypothesis that NTX could display in vivo antagonist selectivity for kappa(More)
RATIONALE Effects of synthetic kappa opioid receptor agonists on cocaine-induced reward have been studied extensively in rats but relatively few studies have used the endogenous kappa agonist dynorphin A(1-17). OBJECTIVES Three studies were conducted to examine the effect of the natural sequence dynorphin on cocaine-induced increases in dopamine, on the(More)
Salvinorin A, a potent hallucinogen isolated from the leaves of Salvia divinorum, has gained popularity among adolescents in the USA. No detailed study of the pharmacokinetics has been conducted in vivo. The present study investigates the in vivo pharmacokinetics of salvinorin A (0.032 mg/kg, i.v. bolus) in rhesus monkeys (n=4, 2 male, 2 female). The(More)
This study focused on the in vivo effects of the kappa-opioid hallucinogen salvinorin A, derived from the plant Salvia divinorum. The effects of salvinorin A (0.0032-0.056 mg/kg i.v.) were studied in a neuroendocrine biomarker assay of the anterior pituitary hormone prolactin in gonadally intact, adult male and female rhesus monkeys (n = 4 each). Salvinorin(More)
Alterations in the expression of multiple genes in many brain regions are likely to contribute to psychostimulant-induced behaviours. Microarray technology provides a powerful tool for the simultaneous interrogation of gene expression levels of a large number of genes. Several recent experimental studies, reviewed here, demonstrate the power, limitations(More)
Salvinorin A is the main active component of the widely available hallucinogenic plant, Salvia divinorum. Salvinorin A is a selective high-efficacy kappa-agonist in vitro, with some unique pharmacodynamic properties. Descriptive reports show that salvinorin A-containing products produce robust behavioral effects in humans. However, these effects have not(More)
This study characterized the antinociceptive, respiratory and heart rate effects of the cannabinoid receptor agonists Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Delta-9-THC) and WIN 55212 ((R)-(+)-2, 3-dihydro-5-methyl-3-[(4-morpholinyl)methyl]pyrol-[1,2,3-de]-1, 4-benzoxazin-6-yl)(1-naphtalenyl)methanone monomethanesulfonate), N-arachidonyl ethanolamide (anandamide)(More)