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RATIONALE Salvinorin A is a naturally occurring hallucinogen derived from the plant Salvia divinorum. Salvinorin A is also a potent and selective kappa opioid receptor agonist in vitro. It has been shown that kappa agonists decrease dopamine levels in the caudate putamen and nucleus accumbens and cause conditioned place aversion in rodents. OBJECTIVES To(More)
Naltrexone (NTX) exhibited approximately 3-fold higher affinity for sites labeled by [3H]U69,593 (putative kappa 1-selective ligand) than [3H]bremazocine (non-selective ligand) in the presence of mu and delta receptor blockade in monkey brain membranes. This led us to test an hypothesis that NTX could display in vivo antagonist selectivity for kappa(More)
RATIONALE Salvinorin A is the active component of the hallucinogenic plant Salvia divinorum. The potential mode of action of this hallucinogen was unknown until recently. A recent in vitro study detected high affinity and efficacy of salvinorin A at kappa-opioid receptors. It was postulated that salvinorin A would produce discriminative stimulus effects(More)
Salvinorin A, a potent hallucinogen isolated from the leaves of Salvia divinorum, has gained popularity among adolescents in the USA. No detailed study of the pharmacokinetics has been conducted in vivo. The present study investigates the in vivo pharmacokinetics of salvinorin A (0.032 mg/kg, i.v. bolus) in rhesus monkeys (n=4, 2 male, 2 female). The(More)
Genetic variation may partially underlie complex personality and physiological traits--such as impulsivity, risk taking and stress responsivity--as well as a substantial proportion of vulnerability to addictive diseases. Furthermore, personality and physiological traits themselves may differentially affect the various stages of addiction, defined(More)
Addiction to drugs, such as heroin, cocaine and alcohol, exacts great human and financial costs on society, but the development of pharmacotherapies for addiction has been largely neglected by the pharmaceutical industry. With advances in our understanding of the underlying biology of addictions now opening the door for the development of novel(More)
Alterations in the expression of multiple genes in many brain regions are likely to contribute to psychostimulant-induced behaviours. Microarray technology provides a powerful tool for the simultaneous interrogation of gene expression levels of a large number of genes. Several recent experimental studies, reviewed here, demonstrate the power, limitations(More)
Antinociceptive and respiratory effects of nalbuphine and other opioids were studied in rhesus monkeys. In a thermal, tail withdrawal assay, the kappa agonist enadoline and the mu agonists alfentanil and fentanyl produced maximum antinociceptive effects in all subjects and over a wide range of temperatures, whereas nalbuphine produced antinociceptive(More)
The antinociceptive effects of the opioid agonists etonitazene and alfentanil, as well as the agonist/antagonists nalbuphine, [(1)-beta-2'-hydroxy-2,9-dimethyl-5-phenyl-6,7-benzomorphan (GPA 1657)] and profadol were studied in the warm water (48 degrees and 55 degrees C) tail-withdrawal assay in rhesus monkeys. Etonitazene and alfentanil produced(More)
RATIONALE The dynorphins are endogenous opioid peptides with relative binding selectivity for kappa-receptors. It is unclear whether the dynorphins share the pharmacological profile observed with synthetic kappa-agonists in primates. OBJECTIVE The main objective of this study was to compare the effects of s.c. E-2078, a stable dynorphin A(1-8) analog,(More)