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1. We sought to distinguish two types of Ca2+ channel in guinea-pig ventricular cells (T-type and L-type) and to characterize their respective gating and permeation properties when Ca2+ (1-10 mM) is the charge carrier, as is the case physiologically. 2. Na+ was removed from both the external and internal solutions to eliminate currents through Na+ channels(More)
Ca2+ transients measured in failing human ventricular myocytes exhibit reduced amplitude, slowed relaxation, and blunted frequency dependence. In the companion article (O'Rourke B, Kass DA, Tomaselli GF, Kääb S, Tunin R, Marbán E. Mechanisms of altered excitation-contraction coupling in canine tachycardia-induced heart, I: experimental studies. Circ Res.(More)
mu-Conotoxins (mu-CTXs) specifically inhibit Na(+) flux by occluding the pore of voltage-gated Na(+) channels. Although the three-dimensional structures of mu-CTXs are well defined, the molecular configuration of the channel receptor is much less certain; even the fundamental question of whether the four homologous Na(+) channel domains are arranged in a(More)
Sodium channels are the major proteins that underlie excitability in nerve, heart, and skeletal muscle. Chemical reaction rate theory was used to analyze the blockage of single wild-type and mutant sodium channels by cadmium ions. The affinity of cadmium for the native tetrodotoxin (TTX)-resistant cardiac channel was much higher than its affinity for the(More)
cAMP-dependent phosphorylation clearly increases current through cardiac L-type Ca channels, but the molecular manifestation of this effect remains controversial. Previous work implicates either an increase in the number of functional channels or graded changes in the gating of individual channels. We now find that single cardiac Ca channels display three(More)
We investigated the mechanism whereby ions cross dihydropyridine-sensitive (L-type) Ca channels in guinea pig ventricular myocytes. At the single-channel level, we found no evidence of an anomalous mole-fraction effect like that reported previously for whole-cell currents in mixtures of Ba and Ca. With the total concentration of Ba + Ca kept constant at 10(More)
Ca channel currents were recorded in Cs-loaded calf cardiac Purkinje fibres and Cs-dialysed myocytes from guinea-pig ventricle to evaluate the dependence of Ca channel inactivation on membrane depolarization and intracellular free Ca concentration ([Ca]i). The decay of Ca channel current during a maintained depolarization was slowed when external Ca was(More)
Calmodulin (CaM) is a calcium-sensing protein that binds to Na(+) channels, with unknown functional consequences. Wild-type CaM produced a hyperpolarizing shift in the steady-state availability of expressed skeletal muscle (micro1) but not cardiac (hH1) Na(+) channels. Mutant CaM(1234) did not alter the voltage dependence or the kinetics of gating of either(More)
1. The sodium channel has a ring of negatively charged amino acids on its external face. This common structural feature of cation-selective channels has been proposed to optimize conduction by electrostatic attraction of permeant cations into the channel mouth. We tested this idea by mutagenesis of mu1 rat skeletal sodium channels expressed in Xenopus(More)
Electrical activity initiates a program of selective gene expression in excitable cells. Although such transcriptional activation is commonly attributed to depolarization-induced changes in intracellular Ca2+, zinc represents a viable alternative given its prominent role as a cofactor in DNA-binding proteins coupled with evidence that Zn2+ can enter(More)