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1 Wijdicks and colleagues 1 recently presented the Full Outline of UnResponsiveness (FOUR) scale as an alternative to the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) 2 in the evaluation of consciousness in severely brain-damaged patients. They studied 120 patients in an intensive care setting (mainly neuro-intensive care) and claimed that " the FOUR score detects a locked-in(More)
Shiga-like toxin-producing Escherichia coli have been associated with hemorrhagic colitis and the hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). Because Argentina has the highest reported frequency of HUS in the world, Argentine children were prospectively studied during the HUS seasons for evidence of Shiga-like toxin-related diseases. On the basis of serology, fecal(More)
Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) is thought to be a vascular endothelial injury disease. The mechanism of injury is unknown although verocytotoxins (Shiga-like toxins (SLTs)) are known to be associated with it. Recent evidence suggests that in vitro treatment of some endothelial cells with tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) dramatically increases their(More)
Argentina has an exceptionally high frequency of hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS). We sought to define prospectively the role of verocytotoxins (Shiga-like toxins [SLTs]) in 254 Argentinean children with grossly bloody diarrhea during spring and summer. Free fecal SLTs (I/II) and/or DNA probe-positive isolates were found in 99 (39%) of the children. During(More)
BACKGROUND Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major cause of acute otitis media (AOM) in young children. More than 90 immunologically distinct pneumococcal serotypes have been identified, but limited information is available regarding their relative importance in AOM. METHODS We analyzed nine existing datasets comprising pneumococcal isolates from middle ear(More)
Two pairs of oligonucleotide primers were designed to amplify fragments of the genes for Shiga-like toxin I (SLT-I) and SLT-II in a single reaction. A 370-bp segment and a 283-bp segment were amplified for SLT-I and SLT-II, respectively. The specificities of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification products were confirmed by using radioactively(More)
BACKGROUND Despite favorable meta-analyses, no study involving third-generation cephalosporins for the treatment of childhood bacterial meningitis has documented a benefit of adjuvant dexamethasone therapy if the outcomes are examined individually. METHODS We conducted a prospective, randomized, double-blind trial comparing adjuvant dexamethasone or(More)
The Global Meningococcal Initiative (GMI) is an international group of scientists and clinicians with expertise in meningococcal disease (MD). It promotes MD prevention through education and research. Given geographic differences in disease epidemiology, prevention strategies (e.g., vaccination) should be country-specific to ensure local needs are met.(More)
BACKGROUND Argentina has the sixth largest number of cumulative pediatric cases of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in the Americas; therefore, this study was designed to characterize human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) infection in children in Buenos Aires, Argentina. MATERIALS AND METHODS Medical records of 389 children at risk and infected(More)
The pathogenesis of primary (classic) hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS) is thought to be related to cytotoxin-producing enteric pathogens such as Shigella dysenteriae serotype 1 and Escherichia coli serotypes O157:H7 and 026:H11. The relevant cytotoxins include Shiga toxin and the closely related Shiga-like toxins (SLTs) produced by some E. coli strains.(More)