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While the potential of agroforestry products to contribute to rural livelihoods is well-recognized, the quantification of their yields, incomes, and value for domestic consumption (VDC) and knowledge about their relationships with biodiversity are still scarce. This information is crucial for choosing the best strategy for growing cocoa in tropical(More)
Cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) is an important economic crop in the Bolivian Amazon. Bolivian farmers both cultivate cacao, and extract fruits from wild stands in the Beni River region and in valleys of the Andes foothills. The germplasm group traditionally used is presently referred to as “Cacao Nacional Boliviano” (CNB). Using DNA fingerprinting technology(More)
Biodiversity continues to decline in the face of increasing anthropogenic pressures such as habitat destruction, exploitation, pollution and introduction of alien species. Existing global databases of species' threat status or population time series are dominated by charismatic species. The collation of datasets with broad taxonomic and biogeographic(More)
The use of pesticides in the cultivation of cash crops such as banana and plantain is increasing, in Costa Rica and worldwide. Agrochemical use and occupational and environmental exposures in export banana production have been documented in some parts of Central America. However, the extent of agrochemical use, agricultural pest knowledge, and economic(More)
Habitat fragmentation studies have produced complex results that are challenging to synthesize. Inconsistencies among studies may result from variation in the choice of landscape metrics and response variables, which is often compounded by a lack of key statistical or methodological information. Collating primary datasets on biodiversity responses to(More)
Cocoa–timber systems have been proposed as viable alternative for simultaneously satisfying the livelihood needs of the farmers (in terms of production of cocoa and other goods for family use or sale) while improving the capacity of the cocoa agroforestry system to provide other ecosystem services at both the plot and landscape level. In this paper we(More)
In the humid tropics, the rapid rate of deforestation has resulted in a race to protect remaining forest patches that are increasingly isolated within a rapidly expanding agricultural matrix. In these landscapes, a significant area consists of complex agro-forestry systems with high structural and functional plant diversity, providing critical resources for(More)
Research published in this special issue on cocoa agroforestry illustrates the multifunctional role of shade trees for sustaining cocoa production and improving farmers’ livelihoods, and addresses tradeoffs between higher cocoa yield and the provision of ecosystem services to local households and global society. Indeed, the use of diverse shade in cocoa(More)
A preliminary demographic model is presented for a population of guava (Psidium guajava L.) trees in a pasture. In this paper special attention is devoted to describing both the calculation and testing of the parameters of the model. Some applications of the model are described. It is predicted that the guava population will gradually decline; low seedling(More)
Guava (Psidium guajava L.) trees in naturalized, unimproved pastures produce valuable firewood, fruit, shade, and other benefits. The effects of guavas on pasture growth and floristic composition were evaluated. Shaded and non-shaded pastures are floristically very similar. Total growth under shade is 49–63% of that in the open.Axonopus compressus(More)