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Microsensors are valuable tools to monitor cell metabolism in cell culture volumes. The present research describes the fabrication and characterization of on-chip thin-film iridium oxide pH microsensors with dimensions of 20 microm x 20 microm and 20 microm x 40 microm suitable to be incorporated into nl volumes. IrOx thin films were formed on platinum(More)
Magnetic fields are proposed to have played a critical role in some of the most enigmatic processes of planetary formation by mediating the rapid accretion of disk material onto the central star and the formation of the first solids. However, there have been no experimental constraints on the intensity of these fields. Here we show that dusty(More)
Article is made available in accordance with the publisher's policy and may be subject to US copyright law. Please refer to the publisher's site for terms of use. The MIT Faculty has made this article openly available. Please share how this access benefits you. Your story matters. [1] Maxwell's equations can be used to demonstrate that the components of a(More)
A hybrid chip is described which combines a microfluidic network fabricated in a silicone elastomer (PDMS) with planar microelectrodes. It was used to measure extracellular potentials from single adult murine cardiac myocytes in a restricted extracellular space. The recorded variations in the extracellular potentials were caused by transmembrane currents(More)
In cardiac myocytes, the activity of the Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) is hypothesized to regulate Ca(2+) release from and Ca(2+) uptake into the sarcoplasmic reticulum via the phosphorylation of the ryanodine receptor 2 and phospholamban (PLN), respectively. We tested the role of CaMKII and PLN on the frequency adaptation of(More)
Angrites are among the oldest known pristine basaltic meteorites and record the earliest stages of planet formation and differentiation. Our paleomagnetic analysis of three angrites found that they record a past magnetic field of approximately 10 microteslas on the angrite parent body extending from 4564 to at least 4558 million years ago. Because the(More)
Water availability for a range of human uses will increasingly be affected by climate change, especially in the arid and semiarid tropics. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the infrastructure sufficiency in meeting water demand under climate-induced socio-hydrological transition in the Capibaribe River basin (CRB). The basin has experienced(More)
The asteroid Vesta is the smallest known planetary body that has experienced large-scale igneous differentiation. However, it has been previously uncertain whether Vesta and similarly sized planetesimals formed advecting metallic cores and dynamo magnetic fields. Here we show that remanent magnetization in the eucrite meteorite Allan Hills A81001 formed(More)