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Artificially enforced expression of CD80 (B7-1) and CD86 (B7-2) on tumor cells renders them more immunogenic by triggering the CD28 receptor on T cells. The enigma is that such B7s interact with much higher affinity with CTLA-4 (CD152), an inhibitory receptor expressed by activated T cells. We show that unmutated CD80 is spontaneously expressed at low(More)
Dendritic cells (DC) and cytokines that expand myeloid progenitors are widely used to treat cancer. Here, we show that CD11c(+)DEC205(+) DCs coexpressing alpha-smooth muscle actin and VE-cadherin home to perivascular areas in the ovarian cancer microenvironment and are required for the maintenance of tumor vasculature. Consequently, depletion of DCs in mice(More)
BACKGROUND/AIMS Identification of epitopes recognized by cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) in hepatitis C virus (HCV) proteins is of importance because they can be used for vaccination, treatment of infection or monitoring of immune responses. Our purpose was to characterize new CTL epitopes in HCV structural proteins. METHODS Peptides were synthesized and(More)
Using panels of peptides well characterized for their ability to bind to HLA DR1, DRB1*1101, or DRB1*0401 molecules, algorithms were deduced to predict binding to these molecules. These algorithms consist of blocks of 8 amino acids containing an amino acid anchor (Tyr, Phe, Trp, Leu, Ile, or Val) at position i and different amino acid combinations at(More)
PURPOSE Many epitopes from tumor antigens recognized by CTLs canbe poorly immunogenic. This low immunogenicity can be improved by carrying out amino acid replacements in their sequence. We have applied this strategy to enhance the immunogenicity of the HLA-A2-restricted CTL epitope CEA691 (IMIGVLVGV) from carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), which is expressed(More)
Human IBD, including UC and Crohn's disease, is characterized by a chronic, relapsing, and remitting condition that exhibits various features of immunological inflammation and affects at least one/1000 people in Western countries. Polyphenol extracts from a variety of plants have been shown to have immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory effects. In this(More)
Like paratroopers in special operations, dendritic cells (DCs) can be deployed behind the enemy borders of malignant tissue to ignite an antitumour immune response. 'Cross-priming T cell responses' is the code name for their mission, which consists of taking up antigen from transformed cells or their debris, migrating to lymphoid tissue ferrying the(More)
Lymphocytes are a key component of the immune system and their differentiation and function are directly influenced by cancer. We examined peripheral blood lymphocyte (PBL) gene expression as a biomarker of illness and treatment effect using the Affymetrix Human Gene ST1 platform in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) who received combined(More)
PURPOSE The product of the carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) gene is an attractive candidate for T-cell-based immunotherapy because it is frequently expressed in epithelial solid carcinomas. Although many CEA peptide epitopes capable of stimulating CTLs have been identified, no MHC class II-restricted T helper epitope has yet been reported. EXPERIMENTAL(More)
In the course of a clinical trial consisting of intratumoral injections of dendritic cells (DCs) transfected to produce interleukin-12, the use of (111)In-labeled tracing doses of DCs showed that most DCs remained inside tumor tissue, instead of migrating out. In search for factors that could explain this retention, it was found that tumors from patients(More)