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BACKGROUND Global control of tuberculosis is hampered by slow, insensitive diagnostic methods, particularly for the detection of drug-resistant forms and in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection. Early detection is essential to reduce the death rate and interrupt transmission, but the complexity and infrastructure needs of sensitive methods(More)
In the past decade, leptospirosis has emerged as a globally important infectious disease. It occurs in urban environments of industrialised and developing countries, as well as in rural regions worldwide. Mortality remains significant, related both to delays in diagnosis due to lack of infrastructure and adequate clinical suspicion, and to other poorly(More)
BACKGROUND The Xpert MTB/RIF test (Cepheid, Sunnyvale, CA, USA) can detect tuberculosis and its multidrug-resistant form with very high sensitivity and specificity in controlled studies, but no performance data exist from district and subdistrict health facilities in tuberculosis-endemic countries. We aimed to assess operational feasibility, accuracy, and(More)
Human T-lymphotropic virus 1 (HTLV-1) has infected human beings for thousands of years, but knowledge about the infection and its pathogenesis is only recently emerging. The virus can be transmitted from mother to child, through sexual contact, and through contaminated blood products. There are areas in Japan, sub-Saharan Africa, the Caribbean, and South(More)
After the first description of TSP/HAM in 1985 and the elaboration of WHO's diagnostic criteria in 1988, the experience of the professionals in this field has increased so that a critical reappraisal of these diagnostic guidelines was considered timely. Brazilian neurologists and observers from other countries met recently to discuss and propose a modified(More)
A direct relationship exists between the intensity of hookworm infection and blood loss. Other parasites may also contribute to blood loss. Our objective was to assess the relationship between the intensity of soil-transmitted helminth infections and anemia in pregnant women in a highly endemic area of Peru. Recruitment occurred between April and November(More)
Four hundred female sex workers attending a sexually transmitted disease clinic in Lima, Peru, were interviewed for demographic information and medical, contraceptive, and sexual practice histories. Cervical cultures were done for Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis, and serum was tested for antibodies to human immunodeficiency virus, human T(More)
Bartonellosis remains a major problem in Peru, but many contemporary aspects of this disease have not been adequately described. We examined the cases of 145 symptomatic patients in Lima, Peru, in whom bartonellosis was diagnosed from 1969 through 1992, including 68 patients in the acute (hematic) phase and 77 patients in the eruptive (verruga) phase. In(More)
Cutaneous tuberculosis continues to be one of the most elusive and more difficult diagnoses to make for dermatologists practicing in developing countries. Not only because they have to consider a wider differential diagnosis (leishmaniasis, leprosy, actinomycosis, deep fungal infections, etc) but also because of the difficulty in obtaining a microbiological(More)
The effects of environmental temperature, presence and severity of El Niño, presence of cholera in the community, and interactions among these variables on the number of adult diarrhoeal patients attending the Hospital Nacional Cayetano Heredia in Lima, Peru, during 1991-1998, were evaluated. During 1991-1996, an increased number of visits to the hospital(More)