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Nitric oxide (NO) synthesized by neuronal NO synthase (nNOS) has long been implicated in brain plasticity. However, it is unclear how this short-lived mediator contributes to the long-term molecular changes underlying neuroplasticity, which typically require activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)(More)
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) participate in NMDA receptor signaling. However, the source(s) of the ROS and their role in the increase in cerebral blood flow (CBF) induced by NMDA receptor activation have not been firmly established. NADPH oxidase generates ROS in neurons, but there is no direct evidence that this enzyme is present in(More)
A central question in Alzheimer's disease research is what role synaptic activity plays in the disease process. Synaptic activity has been shown to induce beta-amyloid peptide release into the extracellular space, and extracellular beta-amyloid has been shown to be toxic to synapses. We now provide evidence that the well established synaptotoxicity of(More)
Cerebral ischemic preconditioning or tolerance is a powerful neuroprotective phenomenon by which a sublethal injurious stimulus renders the brain resistant to a subsequent damaging ischemic insult. We used lipopolysaccharide (LPS) as a preconditioning stimulus in a mouse model of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) to examine whether improvements in(More)
The increase in blood flow evoked by synaptic activity is essential for normal brain function and underlies functional brain imaging signals. Nitric oxide, a vasodilator released by NMDA receptor activation, is critical for the flow increase, but the factors linking NMDA receptor activity to nitric oxide-dependent hyperemia are poorly understood. Here, we(More)
Cyclooxygenases (COX) are prostanoid synthesizing enzymes constitutively expressed in the brain that contribute to excitotoxic neuronal cell death. While the neurotoxic role of COX-2 is well established and has been linked to prostaglandin E(2) synthesis, the role of COX-1 is not clearly understood. In a model of N-Methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) induced(More)
CD36, a class B scavenger receptor present in microglia, endothelium and leukocytes, plays a key role in ischemic brain injury by promoting the expression of inflammatory genes and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). However, it is not known whether ischemic brain damage is mediated by CD36 activation in resident brain cells, i.e., microglia, or by(More)
The Air Traffic Management (ATM) system is continuously evolving to enhance system capacity whilst maintaining safety. To this effect, sophisticated Decision Support Tools (DSTs) are being developed and implemented in airborne and ground-based automation systems. Interoperability among these DSTs is key for the healthy evolution of the ATM system.(More)
The proposal of new analytical techniques has guided innovative methodological developments in public health interventions. The goal of this work is show advances in the development of a large scale system for space-time visualization, monitoring, modeling and analysis of epidemic data using a Grid platform. The resulting virtual laboratory, dubbed(More)