Learn More
The amygdala plays a critical role in determining the emotional significance of sensory stimuli and the production of fear-related responses. Large amygdalar lesions have been shown to practically abolish innate defensiveness to a predator; however, it is not clear how the different amygdalar systems participate in the defensive response to a live predator.(More)
The hypothalamus plays especially important roles in various endocrine, autonomic, and behavioral responses that guarantee the survival of both the individual and the species. In the rat, a distinct hypothalamic defensive circuit has been defined as critical for integrating predatory threats, raising an important question as to whether this concept could be(More)
RATIONALE The midbrain periaqueductal gray (PAG) is part of the brain system involved in active defense reactions to threatening stimuli. Glutamate N-methyl-D: -aspartate (NMDA) receptor activation within the dorsal column of the PAG (dPAG) leads to autonomic and behavioral responses characterized as the fear reaction. Nitric oxide (NO) has been proposed to(More)
The midbrain dorsal periaqueductal gray (DPAG) is part of the brain defensive system involved in active defense reactions to threatening stimuli. Corticotrophin releasing factor (CRF) is a peptidergic neurotransmitter that has been strongly implicated in the control of both behavioral and endocrine responses to threat and stress. We investigated the effect(More)
Previous studies from our laboratory have documented that the medial hypothalamic defensive system is critically involved in processing actual and contextual predatory threats, and that the dorsal premammillary nucleus (PMd) represents the hypothalamic site most responsive to predatory threats. Anatomical findings suggest that the PMd is in a position to(More)
We have recently suggested that the elevated T-maze (ETM) is not a useful test to study different types of anxiety in mice if a procedure similar to that originally validated for rats is employed. The present study investigated whether procedural (five exposures in the enclosed arm instead of three as originally described for rats) and structural(More)
In order to investigate the relationship between behaviors elicited by chemical stimulation of the dorsal periaqueductal gray (dorsal PAG) and spontaneous defensive behaviors to a predator, the excitatory amino acid D,L-homocysteic acid (5 nmol in 0.1 micro l), was infused into the dorsal PAG and behavioral responses of mice were evaluated in two different(More)
Thigmotaxis, a tendency to be close to vertical surfaces, leads rats to avoid open arms in the elevated plus-maze. Evidences support a role in thigmotaxis for the vibrissal sense as well as for vision. In this study, sensory inputs for both senses were manipulated in order to identify which of them mainly contributes to thigmotaxis. This was achieved by(More)
INTRODUCTION Severe asthma is characterized by frequent exacerbations, symptoms limiting daily activities and nocturnal symptoms. It requires the continuous use of medications, at high doses, and, sometimes, continuous use of oral corticosteroids, representing a significant burden to health system and society. This systematic review sought to address(More)
  • 1