Eduardo Enrique Castilla

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Case-parent trios were used in a genome-wide association study of cleft lip with and without cleft palate. SNPs near two genes not previously associated with cleft lip with and without cleft palate (MAFB, most significant SNP rs13041247, with odds ratio (OR) per minor allele = 0.704, 95% CI 0.635-0.778, P = 1.44 x 10(-11); and ABCA4, most significant SNP(More)
BACKGROUND Cleft lip or palate (or the two in combination) is a common birth defect that results from a mixture of genetic and environmental factors. We searched for a specific genetic factor contributing to this complex trait by examining large numbers of affected patients and families and evaluating a specific candidate gene. METHODS We identified the(More)
DEFINITION ECLAMC ('Estudio Colaborativo Latino Americano de Malformaciones Congenitas') is a program for the clinical and epidemiological investigation of risk factors in the etiology of congenital anomalies in Latin-American hospitals, using a case-control methodological approach. It is a voluntary agreement among professionals lacking institutional base(More)
MSX1 has been proposed as a gene in which mutations may contribute to non-syndromic forms of cleft lip and/or cleft palate. Support for this comes from human linkage and linkage disequilibrium studies, chromosomal deletions resulting in haploinsufficiency, a large family with a stop codon mutation that includes clefting as a phenotype, and the Msx1(More)
A descriptive epidemiological study of hypospadias has been made utilizing data from seven malformation surveillance systems round the world: Denmark, Hungary, Italy, Mexico, South America, Spain, and Sweden. The joint material represents 8,122 boys with hypospadias, 7,419 of which were "isolated", that is, with no other known malformation except those(More)
This study departed from a preconceived definition of VACTERL, including more than one of these six anomalies in the same infant: V (vertebral anomalies), A (anal atresia), C (congenital heart disease), TE (tracheoesophageal fistula or esophageal atresia), R (reno-urinary anomalies), and L (radial limb defect). Under this definition, 524 infants were(More)
Infants with cyclopia or sirenomelia are born at an approximate rate of 1 in 100,000 births. Eight malformation monitoring systems around the world jointly studied the epidemiology of these rare malformations: 102 infants with cyclopia, 96 with sirenomelia, and one with both conditions were identified among nearly 10.1 million births. Maternal age is(More)
OBJECTIVES We examined pregnant women's use of cigarettes and other tobacco products and the exposure of pregnant women and their young children to secondhand smoke (SHS) in 9 nations in Latin America, Asia, and Africa. METHODS Face-to-face surveys were administered to 7961 pregnant women (more than 700 per site) between October 2004 and September 2005.(More)
BACKGROUND Currently, all developed countries include rubella vaccination in their immunization programs, targeting the complete elimination of congenital rubella syndrome (CRS). In the underdeveloped world, where this severely disabling condition still exists, only a few countries have implemented vaccination policies, and almost no data on their(More)
The spectrum of the VATER association has been debated ever since its description more than two decades ago. To assess the spectrum of congenital anomalies associated with VATER while minimizing the distortions due to small samples and referral patterns typical of clinical series, we studied infants with VATER association reported to the combined registry(More)