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In many malignant cells, both the anchorage requirement for survival and the function of the p53 tumor suppressor gene are subverted. These effects are consistent with the hypothesis that survival signals from extracellular matrix (ECM) suppress a p53-regulated cell death pathway. We report that survival signals from fibronectin are transduced by the focal(More)
Binding between sperm and egg plasma membranes is an essential step in fertilization. Whereas fertilin, a mammalian sperm surface protein, is involved in this crucial interaction, sperm receptors on the egg plasma membrane have not been identified. Because fertilin contains a predicted integrin ligand domain, we investigated the expression and function of(More)
A novel hard transmission X-ray microscope (TXM) at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource operating from 5 to 15 keV X-ray energy with 14 to 30 microm2 field of view has been used for high-resolution (30-40 nm) imaging and density quantification of mineralized tissue. TXM is uniquely suited for imaging of internal cellular structures and networks(More)
Most transformed cells have lost anchorage and serum dependence for growth and survival. Previously, we established that when serum is absent, fibronectin survival signals transduced by focal adhesion kinase (FAK), suppress p53-regulated apoptosis in primary fibroblasts and endothelial cells (Ilić et al. 1998. J. Cell Biol. 143:547-560). The present goals(More)
During human pregnancy specialized placental cells of fetal origin, termed cytotrophoblasts, invade the uterus and its blood vessels. This tumor-like process anchors the conceptus to the mother and diverts the flow of uterine blood to the placenta. Previously, we showed that the expression of molecules with important functional roles, including a number of(More)
Most transformed cells have lost anchorage and serum dependence for growth and survival. Previously , we established that when serum is absent, fi-bronectin survival signals transduced by focal adhesion kinase (FAK), suppress p53-regulated apoptosis in primary fibroblasts and endothelial cells (Ili et al., 1998. The present goals are to identify survival(More)
Ionizing radiation can cause substantial tissue degeneration, which may threaten the long-term health of astronauts and radiotherapy patients. To determine whether a single dose of radiation acutely compromises structural integrity in the postpubertal skeleton, 18-week-old male mice were exposed to (137)Cs gamma radiation (1 or 2 Gy). The structure of(More)
Astronauts are exposed to both musculoskeletal disuse and heavy ion radiation in space. Disuse alters the magnitude and direction of forces placed upon the skeleton causing bone remodeling, while energy deposited by ionizing radiation causes free radical formation and can lead to DNA strand breaks and oxidative damage to tissues. Radiation and disuse each(More)
Mechanical loading of mammalian tissues is a potent promoter of tissue growth and regeneration, whilst unloading in microgravity can cause reduced tissue regeneration, possibly through effects on stem cell tissue progenitors. To test the specific hypothesis that mechanical unloading alters differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal and hematopoietic stem(More)
Members of the ADAM family (membrane proteins with a disintegrin and metalloprotease domain) have been implicated in several cell-interactive events, including cell-cell fusion. Recent evidence implicates three ADAMs, fertilin-alpha, fertilin-beta, and meltrin-alpha, in sperm-egg fusion and myoblast fusion. In light of the large number and wide tissue(More)