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BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Kyotorphin (KTP; L-Tyr-L-Arg), an endogenous neuropeptide, is potently analgesic when delivered directly to the central nervous system. Its weak analgesic effects after systemic administration have been explained by inability to cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and detract from the possible clinical use of KTP as an analgesic. In(More)
The adverse side-effects associated with opioid administration restrain their use as analgesic drugs and call for new solutions to treat pain. Two kyotorphin derivatives, kyotorphin-amide (KTP–NH2) and ibuprofen–KTP–NH2 (IbKTP–NH2) are promising alternatives to opioids: they trigger analgesia via an indirect opioid mechanism and are highly effective in(More)
The effects of MgCl2 on the binding of tritiated ligands to opioid binding sites in homogenates of guinea-pig brain in HEPES buffer have been studied. The binding of tritiated mu-, delta-, and kappa-opioid agonists was promoted in a concentration-dependent manner over a range of MgCl2 concentrations from 0.1 mM to 10 mM, as was binding of the nonselective(More)
Kyotorphin (KTP) is an endogenous peptide with analgesic properties when administered into the central nervous system (CNS). Its amidated form (l-Tyr-l-Arg-NH2; KTP-NH2) has improved analgesic efficacy after systemic administration, suggesting blood-brain barrier (BBB) crossing. KTP-NH2 also has anti-inflammatory action impacting on microcirculation. In(More)
Chronic brain ischemia is a prominent risk factor for neurological dysfunction and progression for dementias, including Alzheimer's disease (AD). In rats, permanent bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (2VO) causes a progressive neurodegeneration in the hippocampus, learning deficits and memory loss as it occurs in AD. Kyotorphin (KTP) is an endogenous(More)
Recently, a designed class of efficient analgesic drugs derived from an endogenous neuropeptide, kyotorphin (KTP, Tyr-Arg) combining C-terminal amidation (KTP-NH2) and N-terminal conjugation to ibuprofen (Ib), IbKTP-NH2, was developed. The Ib moiety is an enhancer of KTP-NH2 analgesic action. In the present study, we have tested the hypothesis that KTP-NH2(More)
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