Eduard J. Beck

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In Imperial China sexual behaviour was regarded as an indispensable activity to reach harmony with the universe, through the unity of the interaction of two opposing forces: yin and yang. Sexual intercourse was accepted when linked to procreation within a family context, while an individual's sexuality was not considered important. Homosexuality was(More)
BACKGROUND Little information exists on the impact of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) on health-care provision in South Africa despite increasing scale-up of access to HAART and gradual reduction in HAART prices. METHODS AND FINDINGS Use and cost of services for 265 HIV-infected adults without AIDS (World Health Organization [WHO] stage 1, 2,(More)
OBJECTIVE To investigate the relationship between changing morbidity patterns, the use of hospital services by HIV-infected patients and the uptake of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in England. DESIGN Prospective serial cross-sectional analyses based on data collected through the National Prospective Monitoring System (NPMS), a multi-centre prospective(More)
AIM To estimate the cost-effectiveness ratio of highly-active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in Canada. DESIGN A before-and-after analysis to calculate incremental cost of life year gained (LYG) between 1991 and 1995 (pre-HAART period) and between 1997 and 2001 (HAART period) for non-AIDS and AIDS groups (CDC stage of HIV infection). METHODS For two(More)
OBJECTIVE To estimate the cost effectiveness of universal, voluntary HIV screening of pregnant women in England. DESIGN Cost effectiveness analysis. Cost estimates of caring for HIV positive children were based on the stage of HIV infection and calculated using data obtained from a London hospital between 1986 and 1996. These were combined with estimates(More)
AIM To calculate use, cost and cost-effectiveness of people living with HIV (PLHIV) starting routine treatment and care before starting combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) and PLHIV starting first-line 2NRTIs+NNRTI or 2NRTIs+PI(boosted), comparing PLHIV with CD4≤200 cells/mm3 and CD4>200 cells/mm3. Few studies have calculated the use, cost and(More)
The objective of this study was to determine the cost and cost-effectiveness of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Singapore. The use and cost of HIV services was calculated for patients managed at the national HIV referral centre in Singapore between 1996 and 2001 from a hospital perspective. Three groups of patients were compared by Centers for Disease(More)
This review of published studies on the costs of HIV treatment and care describes some of the recent developments that have influenced these costs in industrialised and industrialising countries, especially within the context of changing drug treatments. Some of the different approaches to estimating the economic impact of HIV infection are briefly(More)
The aim of this study was to assess the correlation and average cost of total lymphocyte count compared with CD4 count as a broad estimate of immunosuppression in HIV-1 infected individuals. Spearman's partial rank correlation were calculated between total lymphocyte count, absolute CD4 count and CD4 per cent stratified by stage of HIV-1 infection for(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess the cost-effectiveness of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) compared with two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) for HIV infected individuals. DESIGN Different data sources on the clinical effects and costs of treatments were combined using a Markov model. SETTING English HIV treatment centres. Perspective(More)