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Interleukin (IL)-1beta maturation is accomplished by caspase-1-mediated proteolysis, an essential element of innate immunity. NLRs constitute a recently recognized family of caspase-1-activating proteins, which contain a nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain and leucine-rich repeat (LRR) domains and which assemble into multiprotein complexes to create(More)
Medial vascular calcification (MVC) is a pathological phenomenon that causes vascular stiffening and can lead to heart failure; it is common to a variety of conditions, including aging, chronic kidney disease, diabetes, obesity, and a variety of rare genetic diseases. These conditions share the common feature of tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase(More)
We report the characterization and optimization of drug-like small molecule inhibitors of tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP), an enzyme critical for the regulation of extracellular matrix calcification during bone formation and growth. High-throughput screening (HTS) of a small molecule library led to the identification of arylsulfonamides as(More)
NLR family proteins play important roles in innate immune response. NOD1 (NLRC1) activates various signaling pathways including NF-κB in response to bacterial ligands. Hereditary polymorphisms in the NOD1 gene are associated with asthma, inflammatory bowel disease, and other disorders. Using a high throughput screening (HTS) assay measuring NOD1-induced(More)
We report the discovery and validation of a series of benzoisothiazolones as potent inhibitors of phosphomannose isomerase (PMI), an enzyme that converts mannose-6-phosphate (Man-6-P) into fructose-6-phosphate (Fru-6-P) and, more importantly, competes with phosphomannomutase 2 (PMM2) for Man-6-P, diverting this substrate from critical protein glycosylation(More)
Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved process for catabolizing damaged proteins and organelles in a lysosome-dependent manner. Dysregulation of autophagy may cause various diseases, such as cancer and neurodegeneration. However, the relevance of autophagy to diseases remains controversial because of the limited availability of chemical modulators.(More)
Tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP) is a ubiquitous enzyme expressed at high levels in bone, liver, and kidney. It appears involved in dephosphorylation of numerous phosphate monoesters, but only 2 of them, pyrophosphate and pyridoxal phosphate, have yet been unequivocally documented. Discovery and characterization of other substrates could be(More)
A high-throughput screen of the NIH's MLSMR collection of ∼340000 compounds was undertaken to identify compounds that inhibit Plasmodium falciparum glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (PfG6PD). PfG6PD is important for proliferating and propagating P. falciparum and differs structurally and mechanistically from the human orthologue. The reaction catalyzed by(More)
The recently discovered apelin/APJ system has emerged as a critical mediator of cardiovascular homeostasis and is associated with the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. A role for apelin/APJ in energy metabolism and gastrointestinal function has also recently emerged. We disclose the discovery and characterization of(More)
Successful cancer therapies aim to induce selective apoptosis in neoplastic cells. The current suboptimal efficiency and selectivity drugs have therapeutic limitations and induce concomitant side effects. Recently, novel cancer therapies based on the use of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) have emerged. TRAIL, a key component(More)