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Dijkstra E W. A note on two problems in connexion with graphs. We consider a graph with n vertices, all pairs of which are connected by an edge; each edge is of given positive length. The following two basic problems are solved. Problem 1: construct the tree of minimal total length between the n vertices. (A tree is a graph with one and only one path… (More)

So-called “guarded commands” are introduced as a building block for alternative and repetitive constructs that allow nondeterministic program components for which at least the activity evoked, but possibly even the final state, is not necessarily uniquely determined by the initial state. For the formal derivation of programs expressed in terms… (More)

A number of mainly independent sequential-cyclic processes with restricted means of communication with each other can be made in such a way that at any moment one and only one of them is engaged in the “critical section” of its cycle.

So-called “guarded commands” are introduced as a building block for alternative and repetitive constructs that allow non-deterministic program components for which at least the activity evoked, but possibly even the final state, is not necessarily uniquely determined by the initial state. For the formal derivation of programs expressed in terms… (More)

As an example of cooperation between sequential processes with very little mutual interference despite frequent manipulations of a large shared data space, a technique is developed which allows nearly all of the activity needed for garbage detection and collection to be performed by an additional processor operating concurrently with the processor devoted… (More)

These notes have the status of "Letters written to myself": I wrote them down because, without doing so, I found myself repeating the same arguments over and over again. When reading what I had written, I was not always too satisfied. For one thing, I felt that they suffered from a marked verbosity. Yet I do not try to condense them (now), firstly because… (More)