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BACKGROUND Cytokines play an important role in infection and inflammation and are crucial mediators of the cross-talk between the brain and the immune system. Schizophrenia would be associated with an imbalance in inflammatory cytokines, leading to a decrease in Th1 and an increase in Th2 cytokine secretion. However, data published so far have been(More)
Mitogenic activation of T and B lymphocytes induces expression of the 5-HT(1A) receptor through an NF-kappaB-dependent signaling pathway. In the present study, it is shown that serotonin (5-HT), as well as the selective 5-HT(1A) receptor agonist R-DPAT, increase cell survival and S phase transition in mouse splenocytes stimulated by T or B cell mitogens.(More)
The left and right neocortex of the brain has been shown to exert asymmetrical effects on the immune system. In the present study, we used a middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion model in Wistar rats to analyze the influence of unilateral CNS ischemia on spleen cell number and function. The occlusion time was 1 h, followed by reperfusion with survival for(More)
Fas (CD95), a member of the tumor necrosis factor-receptor superfamily, has been studied extensively as a death-inducing receptor in the immune system. However, Fas is also widely expressed in a number of other tissues, including in neurons. Here, we report that defects in the Fas/Fas ligand system unexpectedly render mice highly susceptible to neural(More)
Disturbances in the endogenous cannabinoid (ECB) system in schizophrenia may contribute to their enhanced sensitivity to psychoactive substances, and the beneficial effects of second-generation antipsychotics for substance abuse in schizophrenia may involve modulatory effects on ECB. To verify these two assumptions, 29 patients (24 completers) with(More)
Defects in the ubiquitin-proteasome system have been implicated in Parkinson's Disease (PD). Recently, a rat model of PD was developed using a synthetic proteasome inhibitor (PSI), (Z-lle-Glu(OtBu)-Ala-Leu-al). We attempted to transfer this model to mouse studies, where genetics can be more readily investigated due to the availability of genetically(More)
BACKGROUND Some but not all antipsychotics have been shown to modulate plasma cytokine levels in schizophrenia patients. Thus far, the most consistent finding has been the increase in plasma levels of soluble interleukin (IL)-2 receptor (sIL-2R) associated with clozapine treatment. Quetiapine is a second-generation antipsychotic with a pharmacological(More)
Background: Substantial evidence demonstrates the presence of an inflammatory syndrome in schizophre-nia, which is manifested by increased peripheral levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), soluble interleukin-2 receptor (sIL-2R), and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA). Unfortunately, the immunomodulatory effects of antipsychotics on peripheral cytokine(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Systemic hypoxia is a common complication in stroke patients and may exacerbate ischemic brain damage. Expression of the hypoxia-inducible cytokine erythropoietin (Epo) is upregulated in the brain in both stroke patients and in animal stroke models and exerts local neuroprotective effects in the ischemic brain. Epo is also well known(More)
Schizophrenia is a complex psychiatric disorder strongly associated with substance use disorders. Theoretically, schizophrenia and SUD may share endocannabinoid alterations in the brain reward system. The main endocannabinoids, anandamide, and 2-arachidonoylglycerol, are lipids which bind cannabinoid receptors. Oleoylethanolamide (OEA), a fatty-acid(More)