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This article reports on the development of a revised version of the Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory (OCI; E. B. Foa, M. J. Kozak, P. Salkovskis, M. E. Coles, & N. Amir, 1998), a psychometrically sound, theoretically driven, self-report measure. The revised OCI (OCI-R) improves on the parent version in 3 ways: It eliminates the redundant frequency scale,(More)
In this article we propose mechanisms that govern the processing of emotional information, particularly those involved in fear reduction. Emotions are viewed as represented by information structures in memory, and anxiety is thought to occur when an information structure that serves as program to escape or avoid danger is activated. Emotional processing is(More)
BACKGROUND Of available self-rated social phobia scales, none assesses the spectrum of fear, avoidance, and physiological symptoms, all of which are clinically important. Because of this limitation, we developed the Social Phobia Inventory (SPIN). AIMS To establish psychometric validation of the SPIN. METHOD Subjects from three clinical trials and two(More)
Meta-analyses of studies yielding sex-specific risk of potentially traumatic events (PTEs) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) indicated that female participants were more likely than male participants to meet criteria for PTSD, although they were less likely to experience PTEs. Female participants were more likely than male participants to experience(More)
Reports on the development and preliminary validation of the Child PTSD Symptom Scale (CPSS) for children and adolescents. The CPSS is a new instrument that was developed to assess the severity of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; American Psychiatric Association, 1994) posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms in children exposed(More)
BACKGROUND Brief screening instruments appear to be a viable way of detecting post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) but none has yet been adequately validated. AIMS To test and cross-validate a brief instrument that is simple to administer and score. METHOD Forty-one survivors of a rail crash were administered a questionnaire, followed by a structured(More)
Ninety-six female assault victims with chronic posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) were randomly assigned to 4 treatment conditions: prolonged exposure (PE), stress inoculation training (SIT), combined treatment (PE-SIT), or wait-list control (WL). Treatment consisted of 9 twice-weekly, individual sessions. Independent evaluations were conducted at(More)
The Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS) is one of the most frequently used measures of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). It has been shown to be a reliable and valid measure, although its psychometric properties in nonveteran populations are not well known. One problem with the CAPS is its long assessment time. The PTSD Symptom Scale--Interview(More)
Rape victims with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD; N = 45) were randomly assigned to one of four conditions: stress inoculation training (SIT), prolonged exposure (PE), supportive counseling (SC), or wait-list control (WL). Treatments consisted of nine biweekly 90-min individual sessions conducted by a female therapist. Measures of PTSD symptoms,(More)
This article reviews the state-of-the-art research in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) from several perspectives: (1) Sex differences: PTSD is more frequent among women, who tend to have different types of precipitating traumas and higher rates of comorbid panic disorder and agoraphobia than do men. (2) Risk and resilience: The presence of Group C(More)