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BACKGROUND Evidence suggests that longer-term exposure to air pollutants over years confers higher risks of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality than shorter-term exposure. One explanation is that the cumulative adverse effects that develop over longer durations lead to the genesis of chronic disease. Preliminary epidemiological and clinical evidence(More)
Mathematical models of disease transmission processes can serve as platforms for integration of diverse data, including site-specific information, for the purpose of designing strategies for minimizing transmission. A model describing the transmission of schistosomiasis is adapted to incorporate field data typically developed in disease control efforts in(More)
The efficacy of praziquantel for the treatment of Schistosoma japonicum in humans is reported from a cross-sectional survey conducted in 33 villages in Sichuan Province. Infection prevalence was found to be 5.7% (185 infected of 3,269 tested) in a region where 44-73% prevalence was found 9 years before. Collected miracidia were subjected to an in vitro test(More)
This study examined relationships between greenness exposure and free-living physical activity behavior of children in smart growth and conventionally designed communities. Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) was used to quantify children's (n=208) greenness exposure at 30-s epoch accelerometer and GPS data points. A generalized linear mixed model(More)
We combined information on the temporal pattern of disease incidence for the 1993 cryptosporidiosis outbreak in Milwaukee with information on oocyst levels to obtain insight into the epidemic process. We constructed a dynamic process model of the epidemic with continuous population compartments using reasonable ranges for the possible distribution of the(More)
Twenty villages in the Anning River Valley of southwestern Sichuan China were surveyed for Schistosoma japonicum infections in humans and domestic animals. Also surveyed were human water contact patterns, snail populations, cercarial risk in irrigation systems, and agricultural land use. Few animals were infected, while village prevalence of infection in(More)
Traditionally, microbial risk assessors have used point estimates to evaluate the probability that an individual will become infected. We developed a quantitative approach that shifts the risk characterization perspective from point estimate to distributional estimate, and from individual to population. To this end, we first designed and implemented a(More)
The development of predictive models of the spatial distribution of schistosomiasis are hampered by the existence of different regional subspecies of the Oncomelania hupensis snail that serve as intermediate hosts for the disease in China. The habitats associated with these different subspecies vary considerably, with mountainous habitats in the west and(More)
BACKGROUND Epidemiological studies on physical activity often lack inexpensive, objective, valid, and reproducible tools for measuring physical activity levels of participants. Novel sensing technologies built into smartphones offer the potential to fill this gap. OBJECTIVE We sought to validate estimates of physical activity and determine the usability(More)
Environmental effects on the transmission of many parasitic diseases are well recognized, but the role of specific factors like climate and agricultural practices in modulating transmission is seldom characterized quantitatively. Based on studies of Schistosoma japonicum transmission in irrigated agricultural environments in western China, a mathematical(More)